Print ISSN: 1818-5746

Online ISSN: 2313-4429

Volume 15, Issue 1

Volume 15, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2016, Page 1-164


Effect of different levels of sesame oil (Sesamum indicum) supplementation to the ration on egg quality traits of Lohmann brown hens

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 1-7

The experiment was conducted at the poultry farm of animal resources dept./ College of Agriculture / University of Baghdad by using 64 Lohmann hens, 22 weeks old. Birds were randomly assigned to four treatment groups of 16 hens each. Each treatment group was constituted of two replicates with 8 hens each. Treatment groups were as follow: T1 (Control group), T2 represent the supplementation of seasem oil to the birds diet at the levels of 0.5 % , T3 represent the supplementation of seasem oil to bird ration at the levels of 0.75 % and T4 represent the supplementation of sesame oil to the birds diet at the levels of 1 %. Traits included in this experiment were: shell thickness, shell weight relative, yolk weight relative, yolk height, yolk diameter, yolk index, albumen weight relative, albumen height, haugh unit. Results indicated that the addition of different levels of sesame oil to the laying hens diet resulted in significant improvement in the total means of: shell thickness, shell weight relative, yolk diameter, albumen height, albumen weight relative, haugh unit. In conclusion, feeding laying hens with diets containing seasem oil resulted in clear amelioration in some of egg quality traits produced by these hens. Therefore, seasem oil can be used as one of important nutritive supplements to the laying hens diet for improving some egg quality traits. .

Effect of some feed additives against toxicity induced by aflatoxin contaminated diet in broiler

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 1-7

The effects of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) and Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on body weight, feed conversion, body weight gain and immune response was investigated in broiler fed on aflatoxin (AF). A total number of 180 one day old broiler chickens (Hubbard classic) were randomly distributed into 6 experimental groups; G1: control (basal diet), G2: (basal diet + SC 2%), G3: (basal diet + FOS 0.25%), G4: (basal diet + AF100μg), G5: (basal diet + AF100μg + SC 2%), G6: (basal diet + AF100μg + FOS 0.25). The weight range, feed conversion, body weight gain and humoral immunity of birds were evaluated. Results of (G2) and (G3) show a significant (P<0.05) increase weight range, body weight gain, fed conversion ratio and the antibody titers in compare to control, while the AF contaminated diet (G4) showed decrease in body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and the antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus. Aflatoxin groups treated with 2% Saccharomyces cerevisiae (G5) and 0.25% fructooligosaccharide (G6) show increased in the broilers performance value and humoral immune response of broilers vaccinated against Newcastle virus disease as compared to the aflatoxin group (G4). In conclusion the addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and fructooligosaccharide had a beneficial effects on broilers health and can minimize the effect of aflatoxin on broiler performance and immunity. .

Isolation and diagnosis of sheep pox virus by polymerase chain reaction technique

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 8-13

This study aimed for isolation and diagnosis of sheep pox virus by polymerase chain reaction. 26 samples were collected from clinically infected animals,9 samples were selected for inoculation in chicken embryos. Agar gel precipitation test was used for detect the reaction between the viral isolate and specific hyper immune serum, slides were prepared from chorioallantoic membrane for histopatholgical examination. Serum neutralization test used for detecting neutralizing antibodies for isolate. Selected 7 samples were examined by polymerase chain reaction for detection extracted nucleic acid. The result showed firstly reported of nodular form in Nineveh province, red pock lesions appear on chorioallantoic membrane during serial passages, a precipitation lines appears between the isolate and hyper immune serum by immunodiffusion test and intra-cytoplasmic inclusion bodies appear within infected cells, and the neutralizing antibodies showed by serum neutralization test with titer 1:64. Finally some samples showed positive result for polymerase chain reaction while another samples gave negative result. Thus the isolation and propagation of sheep pox virus can be done on chicken embryos and diagnose by polymerase chain reaction. .

Detection of mouse spermatocyte's DNA damage in vitro and in vivo using FISH assay

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 8-12

The present study was designed in order to detection DNA damage of spermatocytes in vitro and in vivo in white mice, with explain florescence in situ hybridization FISH assay. The study conducting on seventy (70) male mouse were kept in animals' house in college of Veterinary Medicine in Baghdad University and fed on special pellet and drank on tap water in special bottles, divided into three groups. 1st group; Thirty mice were treated (in vivo) by intra-peritoneal injection with 0.1mg/10gm B.W. of vincristine sulfate weekly for three weeks. 2nd group; Sperms were collected from thirty mice and treated (in vitro) weekly for three weeks with 0.01mg /ml of vincristine sulfate. 3rd group; ten mice treated with intra-peritoneal injection of 0.1ml of distilled water and consider as control group. Results were showed evident of DNA damage in TK (11qE2)/Y gene of spermatocytes, which diagnosed by using florescence microscopy after application of FISH procedure in laboratory. The percentage of green signals and red signals indicated the defect in DNA of spermatocytes, increase percent of each refers to increase damage in chromosomes of sperms. In conclusion, using of vincristine chemotherapy has genotoxic effects on mouse's' sperms in vivo and in vitro..

Outer membrane protein C (ompC) gene as target for diagnosis of Salmonella spp. using polymerase chain (PCR) reaction

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 13-17

A total of 1200 different specimens collected from human and animals sources. 600 specimens from patients suffering from diarrhea who were admitted to Al-Diwaniya Teaching Hospital for Maternity and Children. 600 specimens from gall bladder (bile) of cattle from Al-Diwaniya slaughter house. This study was conducted during the period that extended from May 2013 to April 2014. Salmonella spp. were isolated and identified using bacterial culturing on selective media, biochemical, API 20E, serotyping by polyvalent and conformation by PCR. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect ompC gene encoding for biosynthesis of outer membrane protein C of Salmonella genus. The results revealed that the rate of Salmonella isolates was 0.5% (3/600) from human and 1% (6/600) from animals. The PCR technique revealed that 9 isolates of Salmonella spp. were contain ompC gene (DNA amplification showed one distinct band with molecular weight of 204 bp when electrophorised on agarose gel).The results of this study revealed that the PCR technique had a high specificity in detection of Salmonella spp., in comparison to culture and biochemical test, Mini API 20 E and serological tests. The present study found no significant differences between human and animal isolates. Mini API 20E.

Preparation of live attenuated vaccine of sheep pox from local isolate

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 14-19

The aim of study was preparation of live attenuated vaccine of sheep pox from local isolate. 26 samples (skin scabs) were collected and represented 9 regions Nineveh province, and after 3 serial passages one positive sample was selected for continuous passages until reach to attenuation of the isolate. The titration of the isolate was done in chicken embryos and sheep skin (flank region). Two (2) animals were used for challenge test to determine the protection ratio of this isolate. The results of serial passages showed distinguished red Pock lesions on chorioallantoic membrane, and the attenuation occur at passage 16 with titer (104.49EID50/0.1 ml) in both skin of sheep and chicken embryos. The protection against challenge virus (103.5 EID50/0.1 ml) was 100%. The isolate was safe and gave a positive results for the safety test in pregnant ewes and high dose of vaccine and purity. Thus the isolate can be used for immunization of sheep against sheep pox disease..

Effect of feeding lysine and methionine on some production performance and blood picture parameter of broiler chickens

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 18-21

The study aims to determine the effect of feeding lysine and methionine on some blood and productivity traits of broiler chickens. Seventy five (Ross breed) birds one day old were been breeding and grouped randomly into three equal groups as follows: T1 control group, T2 lysine group, T3 methionine group. Chicks were housing and feeding for 42 days. Results were show a significant (P <0.05) weekly increase of body weight of lysine and methionine groups (2729.45 g, 2741.25 g) respectively than the control group (2515.20 g), and feed intake (4678.73 g, 4680.03 g) compared with control group (4586.93 g). Also a significant increase in (PCV) (9.53, 9.65%) and the number of red blood cells (2.98, and 3.15 × 610 / ml3) and the concentration of Hb (9.62, 10.01 g / 100 ml of blood) than the control group and there is significant increase in the number of white blood cells. So can give lysine and methionine to increase productivity qualities and blood for poultry..

The effect of using camel milk on iron and glucose level and ceruloplasmin in local male rabbits intake aflatoxin B1 in their own food

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 20-25

.The present study was designed to investigate the effect of camel milk on the local male rabbits exposed to aflatoxin B1 in food and infected liver damage, kidney and see its effect towards the antioxidants iron and ceruloplasmin and glucose. 32 male rabbits were divided randomly into four equal groups. First group G1 is the control, which drenched 15 ml of water Rabbit Day 76 days along the experiment duration. Second group G2 treated with aflatoxin B1 30 ppm Rabbit day for the first 38 days and then treatment changed to a second treatment with 15 ml camel milk Rabbit Day for the second 38 days of the experiment. The third group G3 drenched aflatoxin B1 30 ppm Rabbit day for the first 38 days and then converted to the second treatment 15 ml water Rabbit Day for the second 38 days of the experiment. The fourth group G4 gave 15 ml camel milk Rabbit Day for the first 38 days of the experiment and replaced by a second treatment 30 ppm Rabbit Day for the second 38 days of the experiment. Blood was drawn at the start of the experiment and every 19 and 38 days from first and second treatment to study the effect of camel milk and effectiveness towards glucose, iron, ceruloplasmin. The results showed significant (P<0.005) increase in levels of glucose, iron, ceruloplasmin, which intake camel milk.

Evaluation of using Polyfam on broiler performance during mycotoxicosis

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 22-28

The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effect of (polyfam) 5gkg of ration against the toxic effects of mixed mycotoxins in growing broiler chickens (ROSS-308).Total 100 chicks, one week age were divided into 5 equal treated groups. G1; fed a contaminated ration with mycotoxin and supplemented with polyfam 5g/kg of ration and vaccinated with Gumboro vaccine at 15 and 22 days of age. G2; was fed a ration contaminated with mycotoxin and vaccinated with Gumboro vaccine at 15 and 22 days of age and not supplemented with polyfam. G3; was fed intact ration and vaccinated with Gumboro vaccine at 15 and 22 days of age. G4; was only fed a contaminated ration with mycotoxins. G5; was fed intact broiler ration as a control group. The diet was naturally contaminated with many mycotoxins, the mycotoxins in feed was analyzed by ELISA and the level of mycotoxins were as follows: Aflatoxin B1 0.001 mg/kg, Dezoxivalenol 1.24 mg/kg, Zearalenon 0.068 mg/kg ,Ochratoxin 0.005 mg/kg ,T2 toxin 0.09 mg/kg, Fuminisen B1 0.2 mg/kg. Results showed that polyfam significantly (P<0.05) protect chicken body weight, severity of clinical signs, morbidity and mortality rate. It was concluded that this preparation is protect chicken bioavailability parameters in comparison with the other groups and was recommended to use it as antitoxic material..

Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and molecular detection of bla-OXA gene of the bacteria from milk of mastitis cattle and from the wounds of the udder

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 29-33

The study aimed to isolate, identify (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), test the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa isolates against some antibiotics (class A- penicillineses and D-cloxacillin-hydrolyzing enzymes (OXA)), and detection the virulence factor (Beta lactemase -OXA gene) by PCR technique. Twenty two isolates of P. aeruginosa (8 from the milk and 14 swabs of wound) were obtained from 70 cattle have mastitis and wounds on udder, by using nutrient agar and MacConkey agar. The antibiotic sensitivity test was performed by disc diffusion methods using four antibiotics (oxacillin, cefotaxime, ticarcillin, and impenem). Among the 4 antibiotics tested, the highest resistance was found with oxacillin, cefotaxime (100%, and 60%) respectively, and the lowest resistance rate was to the ticarcillin, and impenem (39%, and 55%) respectively. PCR were performed for all the resistant strains where the frequency of bla-OXA gene have product (618bp) to 22 strains with multidrug resistance of P. aeruginosa infection to cattle suffering mastitis. .

Sero-prevalence of Chlamydophila abortus in goat farms in Duhok Province-Iraq

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 34-37

Chla¬mydophila abortus is still considered one of the most common causes of reproductive defeat in goats all over the world. In Duhok province, no data for the presence of Chla-mydophila abortus infection has been reported. This is a preliminary study on a sero-prevalence of C. abortus antibodies by using ELISA test from goat’s flocks in Duhok province. Total of 92 female goats, that were ≥ 12 month old, were randomly selec¬ted from three flocks (Zakho, Amedy, and Summel districts) of 250 total animal populations in each flock in these three different districts in Duhok province from March to April 2013. From each individual animal, 5 ml of blood was collected from jugular vein and put them in a EDTA tubes for harvesting serum. Out of 92 dairy goats examined, 11.9% were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies. The highest percentage was reported to be in Summel district, then followed by Zakho district. The lowest rate was reported to be in Amedy district. The high percentage of sero-positive goats found in this study reflect that this pathogen is highly available in this areas and need further researches to identify the pathogen on a wide country level on many animal species with excellent quality control programs to eradicate this pathogen..

The effects of ciprofloxacin on male rabbits: Biochemical and histopathological study

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 38-44

The present study was designed to investigate the possible effect of ciprofloxacin on blood serum enzymes activities (AST, ALT and ALP), total cholesterol, total protein, albumin and globulin as well as the histopathological changes on liver, kidney and testes. The study conducted on twelve male rabbits divided into two equal groups. G1 was administrated distilled water orally and considered as control group. G2 was given 100 mg/kg B.W/day of ciprofloxacin for 35 days orally. Blood samples were taken from animals after 35 days of treatment for biochemical analysis to estimate; total cholesterol (TC), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alanine-aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphates (ALP), total protein, albumin and globulin, then all animals were sacrificed, liver, kidney and testes were taken and fixed in 10% formalin for histological examination. The results showed that ciprofloxacin administration significantly (p< 0.05) increased the serum total cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP concentration. While there were significant (P<0.05) decreased the serum level of total protein and globulin, but no significant changes was observed on the serum level of albumin. While histopathologically the liver show vacuolation of hepatocytes and congestion of central vein. The kidney display vacuolation of cortical areas and dilatation of tubules. While the testes exhibits suppression of spermatogenesis in treated animals compared with control group. These results revealed the toxic effect of ciprofloxacin on liver, kidney and testes of male rabbits. .

Clinical and hematological study of experimentally induced secondary copper deficiency in sheep

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 45-50

The study was conducted on ten male Awassi sheep to evaluate the clinical and hematological changes in addition to measure serum copper level of sheep suffering from secondary copper deficiency during 4 months period. Animals were divided randomly into two equal groups; One group was drenched with a mixture of ammonium molybdate 100 mg with 1g of sodium sulfate in 100 ml of water daily for induction of secondary copper deficiency. The second group left without treatment as control group. The serum copper level, and complete blood picture (Red blood cells, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, total white blood cells, granulocytes %, lymphocyte %, and monocytes %), were estimated on day zero and repeated every two weeks. Results revealed appearance of clinical signs of secondary copper deficiency in deficient (treated) group; including emaciation of all 5 animals, loss of wool and easily to detached, bleaching around eye in one animal, change in wool color, and increased in respiratory and pulse rate compared with control group. The clinical examination of both groups revealed no significant differences in temperature, while there was a significant (P ≤ 0.05) difference in pulse rate, and respiratory rate between treated (37.6 ± 3.07) and control (27.4 ± 1.53) group. Copper level decreased gradually to reach (0.64 ± 0.06 ppm) which regard subnormal level with statistical significant decrease (after 2 months of treatment) in treated compared with control group. Blood parameters included (RBC, Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH and MCHC) were recorded non significant differences along the experiment period in treated compared with control group. Total WBC in treated group were recorded variation in the values with presence of significant gradual decrease in the treated compared with control group with non-significant differences in granulocyte %, monocyte % and lymphocyte %. .

Investigation for bacterial causes of superficial abscesses in Iraqi goats

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 51-53

The aim of the study was to investigate the bacterial causes of superficial abscesses in goats. Thirty pus samples were collected out of 560 examined goats from many flocks. Results recorded the incidence ratio of superficial abscess in goats were 5.3%. In which the distribution ratios in body were; head and neck 60.0%. abdomen, chest and sternum 20.0%, udder 10%, testis 6.66% and inter digital clefts 3.33% from total superficial abscesses. Forty seven bacterial strains were isolated from thirty superficial abscesses cases, including: Staphylococcus spps. 34.04%, Corynebacterium spps. 19.14%, Streptococcus spps. 14.89%, Arcanobacterium pyogenes 14.89%, Enterobacteriaceae 10.63%, Pseudomonas spps. 4.25%, and Fusobacterium spps. 2.12%. The study founded one superficial abscess which gave negative result for bacterial culturing with ratio 3.3%. 3,33%.

Detection of white mice intestinal immune response against the external surface of Hymenolepis nana by scanning electron microscope

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 54-57

The aim of the study was involve the scanning electron microscope to detect any damage to the surface of the Hymenolepis nana worm at different ages due to host intestinal immune response. Fifteen male albino Balb/c mice were used in this experiment. The eggs suspension obtained from gravid proglottid was given to mice by administration tube. The infected mice were killed at different intervals. The intestines of mice were opened and the worms allowed to release. These worms were examined by electron microscope. The results as observed; the surface of the scolex has a smooth structure in both 30 and 63 days old worm. The neck surface was smooth at 10 days and at the 30 and 63 days old worms was pitted. There were puff-like cells attached to the surface; these were lymphocytes, and may be eosinophil. Similar damage was seen on the tegument of posterior part of the worm. We can conclude that there is a progressive destruction of tegument as worm ages, and this is believed to be a consequence of immune response..

Anatomical parameters of head and neck with referring to their conformation of local Arabian horses

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 58-69

The study was carried out on (180) local Arabian horses in Al-Diwaniyeh Province for three different breeds (Kehalan, Saklawi and Hamadani). They divided into six age groups which were (12-36, 36-60, 60-84, 84-120, 120-180 and 180-240 months), also their sexes divided equally and their colors (white, black, red and brown) were included in the study. Many different head and neck morphological measurements were recorded as follow: Head length (HeL), the line between the bases of ears (BR), the line between the medial canthi of the eyes (BE), the head side length (SL), the circumference of the attached part of the neck with the head (HNP), the circumference of the attached part of the neck with the body (NBP), and neck length (NL). Results indicated that in (12-36 months) group, the male and female Saklawi recorded significant decrements (P<0.05) with other breeds in the (HeL) measurement with 63.60 ± 1.661 and 64.20 ± 1.985 respectively, the (NL) measurement of male Saklawi was 43.80 ± 1.595 which registered a significant difference (P<0.05) with other breeds, as well the male of the same breed had significant decrement in both (HNP) and (SL) parameters with 70.20 ± 0.374 and 66.00 ± 1.140 respectively. The (36-60 months) group the (HeL), (BR), (NL) and (NBP) measurements of male and female Hamadani registered significant differences (P<0.05) with all other breeds, while the (HNP) parameters of male and female Kehalan recorded significant increment with other breeds. The (60-84 months) group the measurements of (BR) and (NBP) of male and female Hamadani were 19.80 ± 0.374, 20.40 ± 0.510 and 108.60 ± 1.913 and 108.80 ± 0.200 respectively and these results registered significant decrements with other breeds. The (84-120 months) group the male and female Hamadani recorded significant differences with all other breeds in (BR), (NL) and (NBP) parameters. The (120-180 and 180-240 months) groups the (NL) as well as (NBP) parameters of male and female Hamadani registered significant differences with all other breeds. The Arabian local horses in the present study characterized by long neck, broad forehead as well as long face. .

Effect of breed, sex, and age, on hooves conformation in local Iraqi Arabian horses

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 70-76

The study was conducted on (50) Iraqi Arabian horses of different colors, age groups and sub-breeds (Saklawi (S), Kehalan (K), Hamadani (H), and Mauniqi (M). The linear measure-ments of hoof which were studied: hoof length (HL), hoof width (HW), hoof height(HH), hoof circumference (HC) toe length(TL), quarter length(QL), heel length (HeL), heel height (HeH), frog length (FL) and frog width (FW). The study showed many different results submitted to statistical analysis according to (ANOVA) program at P< 0.05. The HL and HW in S sub- breed showed significant differences (SD) between fore and hind limbs. There were SD in the HH of both limbs between (H, S) and (M, K). The HC of the forelimbs, there were SD between S and other sub- breeds, while the hind limbs there were SD between (H, K) and other sub-breeds. The TL of the forelimbs were SD between (H,S) and other sub-breeds, but there were SD between (H,M ) and other sub-breeds. The QL of the forelimbs were SD between M and other sub-breeds, while the hind limbs were SD between (H, K) and other sub-breeds. The HeL of the fore limbs were SD between M and other sub-breeds. The HeH of the fore limbs were SD between (H, S) and other sub-breeds, while in the hind limbs, there were SD between M and (H, K). The FL of the forelimbs and hind limbs were SD between M and other sub-breeds. The FW of the hind limbs were SD between (H, K) and other sub- breeds, while in the hind limbs, there were SD between M and other subbreeds. The HeL of the forelimbs showed SD between ((group (6-9 years), and group (above 9years)) and other age groups, while the HW of the hind limbs were SD between group (above 9 years) and other age groups. The study results showed that the breed and age effected on the hooves conformation and Al-Saklawi had the highest hoof dimensions in general, which refer that the Iraqi Arabian Horses are nearly pure Arabian horses, while sex, and limb type have no effect on hooves conformation. .

An investigation of Babesia spp. in goats in AL-Qadisiya province

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 77-80

The study designed to evaluate the microscopic features of Babesia spp. Of goats, and know the effect of age, sex and the month of year on rate of infection. Sixty eight (68) blood samples were collected from jugular vein of suspected goats (aged 1 month to 4 years) during the period from September 2014 to April 2015 from different regions in AL-Qadisiya province. Samples were transmitted to laboratory for make blood smears. Results of microscopic examination showed that Babesia ovis and Babesia motasi appeared in ring form, double and single pyirform inside the RBCs. Eight (8) (11.7%) goats out 68 cases were positive. The highest rate of infection was (62.5%) in October, while the lowest rate was (15%) observed in March, also there was negative results seen in (November, December, January, February, April) and there was significant differences at level (P < 0.05). The highest rate of infection observed in (1-2) years of age with significant (P<0.05) differences. No effects of gender were seen in examined goats. In conclusions, both Babesia ovis and Babesia motasi are present in Iraqi goats. Babesia ovis is considered the main type spreading in Iraq. .

The effect of low level laser therapy on bone healing in male rats

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 81-95

The study aimed to evaluate the beneficial effect of low level laser therapy on bone healing, and to compare between the effect of using two doses (4 and 8 J/cm2) of laser. Sixty adult male Wistar rats were used and randomly divided into three equal groups, control and two laser treatment groups 4J / cm² and 8J / cm². Bone injury (2 mm in diameter osteotomy) (limited size bone stoma) was created by drilling in the right tibia bone of each animal after making 2cm length longitudinal skin incision on the anterio-lateral aspect of the leg by use scalpel, and displaced the anterior tibials muscle laterally. After that the muscle was replaced and the incisions was sutured with 3/0 silk suture materials. The two laser groups (4J/cm2 and 8J/cm2) are received a close-contact pulsed Gallium-Aluminum Arsenide Laser (GaAlAs) on the operation site (with energy density of 4 and 8J/cm2 in a wave length of 660nm, power output (50mw), pulsing rate 146 Hz.) immediately post operation then repeated the dose daily for seven successive days. Control group left untreated. Bone healing processes were followed-up by taking histopathological specimens after euthanasia of animals at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after the surgical operation. Results displayed that the laser therapy used in both doses were an evenly continuous enhance the healing process of the bone, by acceleration process of healing and reduce inflammation period in compared with the control group. Histologically the bone defect in 4J/cm2 group was filled early with a dense mass of granulation tissue interposed with polydactyl projections of spike like bony trabeculae giving the shape of new developing bone. The osteoblasts were seen large in size lining the bone trabiculae. The trabecula containing numerous osteocytes. Intra membranous and endochondral ossification were developed early. The cartilage tissue was disappearing at 28 days and the calluses seem like more developed. In 8J/cm2 group early visualization of both intramembranous and endochondral ossification surrounded by new periosteal tissue. Thick and dense branching interconnected trabeculae were appearing fill the bone defect. The endochondral ossification early invade the cartilage tissue from the periphery, also the intra membranous and the endochondral ossification were interconnected. No signs of inflammation, and early disappear of granulation tissue were seen. Finally thick highly cellularized woven bone was seen characterized by presence of wide multi-branched interconnected trabeculae connecting each other. In conclusion the both doses (4 and 8J/cm2) were used seen effective in stimulating and enhance the bone healing, and the 8J/cm2 was given better stimulation effect than the 4J/cm2..

Measuring of serum pepsinogens level in abomasal lesions of sheep

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 96-100

The study aimed to investigate serum pepsinogens values with and without abomasl lesions of sheep. Eighty five blood and abomasal samples containing abomasal lesions were collected during slaughtering of sheep in slaughterhouse of Al-Qasim city-Iraq. The abomasal mucosa was examined, and the type, number, and location of lesions were recorded. Serum was taken for pepsinogen assay by ELISA technique. Results revealed that the highest percentage of lesions in abomasum were nodules (48.23%), ulcers (23.52%), parasites (17.64%) and hemorrhage (10.58%). A significant difference (P≤0.05) was recorded between nodules and other abomasum lesions. Serum pepsinogens values in abomasal lesions was found higher (3.8) than those without abomasal lesions (3.13), and showed a significant difference in samples which had different lesions (3.8±0.13) than free lesions samples (3.13±0.1). No significant difference was showed between all samples containing ulcer, nodules and parasites (3.65± 0.28) (3.88±0.24) (3.65±0.95) respectively although the nodules was recorded higher serum pepsinogens comparative with other lesions..

Prevalence of efflux genes and chromosomal protection protein genes among tetracycline resistant Aeromonas spp. isolated from diarrheic patients in Iraq

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 101-108

The study aim to investigate the prevalence of tetracycline resistant Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from clinical sources in Hilla city - Iraq, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. A total of 822 samples were collected from fecal specimens from patients. Samples were collected from rectal swab (routine work) and from those who suffering from diarrhea. Isolates were identified using cultural and biochemical tests to the level of species and then identification was confirmed using viteks 2 system and molecular technique using 16S rRNA specific primer. PCR was used to detect tetracycline resistance isolates. Out of 822 clinical samples collected, 13 isolates (1.58%) were belonged to Aeromonas spp. However, other bacterial isolates belonged to other genera similar to Aeromonas were also recovered. Out of 13 Aeromonas spp., eight A. hydrophila isolates (61.53%) were obtained, while the other isolates were distributed as: four isolates of A. salmoncidia (30.76%), and one of A. sobria. Isolation and detection of A. salmoncidia species was first recorded in Iraq. Results found that all tetracycline-resistant isolates carried at least one of the tet genes examined. Among efflux genes, tet(A) was the most commonly observed in isolates (No.8), found in 6 isolates (75%), followed by Efflux tet gene (tet B,C) (62.5%) and chromosomal protection protein (tetO) 5 (62.5%). Tet (E) efflux gene was found in two isolates (25%). Efflux pump (tetL) and chromosomal protect gene tet (M) was detected in one isolates (12.5%). However efflux genes tet (D and G) were not detected in any of the isolates. The prevalence of tet O chromosomal protection protein among A. hydrophila isolates was first recorded in Iraq and in many other countries. .

A comparative anatomical and histological study of the tongue and lingual papillae in adult Awassi rams (Ovis ovis) and Billy-goat (Capra hircus)

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 109-117

The purpose of the study was to unveil the comparative of macroscopic and microscopic features of the tongue and lingual papillae in adult rams and billy-goat (1.5-2 years old). Ten tongue specimens of each rams and billy-goat were used to study the anatomical and histological features. Results were demonstrated that the mean total length of the tongue in rams was longer than that in billy-goat. The tongue of rams has gray or blackish color with nearly round apex and not has median groove, while the tongue of billy-goat was pink in color with a sharp rounded anterior edge and the apex of tongue was flattened like spatula shaped and has median groove, black spot was found on the dorsal surface in tongue of billy-goat only. In both species the body of tongue presented a well developed torus linguae and fossa linguae, the root was shorter part of the tongue lies caudally to the body of the tongue and slopes ventrally and caudally toward the base of the epiglottis, and the root was has conical papillae on each side of its. There were five types of papillae in tongue of both rams and billy-goat; the filiform, fungiform, conical, lenticular and vallate papillae. The filiform papillae were soft horny threadlike papillae found on dorsal, lateral and ventral surfaces of tongue, and were lined by keratinization stratified squamous epithelium. Mean number and diameter of the fungiform papillae in rams were more than that in billy-goat, it was round, convex, mushroom-like, distributed on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the apex and body of tongue and have numerous taste bud and lined by keratinized epithelium. The conical papillae have a round base and a blunt tip, they were found rostral to the torus linguae in each species and this papilla was lined by keratinized epithelium. The lenticular papillae were convex lens in shape found in the middle part of torus linguae, and were covered by keratin layer. Mean number of vallate papillae in rams were more than that in billy-goat, it was round to oval in shape found on the lateral side to torus linguae arranged in two rows has V shape and were covered by a cornified layer. Foliate papillae were absent in both species. The Von Ebner's glands of rams were serous, while in billy-goat were mucous, Weber's glands were sero-mucous in both species, which located under the vallate papillae. In conclusion: The morphology of tongue, the number, distribution and morphological characteristics of lingual papillae of ram and billy-goat were related to the species of animal, kind of diet and feeding habits..

In vivo antibacterial activity of whey protein derived from fermented milk of Iraqi buffalo

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 118-122

The present study aims to prepare fermented buffalo's milk rich with low molecular weight peptides by using lactic acid starters as a mixture. Skim milk sample was inoculated with 5% of the starter. The growing number of starter and anti-bacterial activity were studied after 24 hours of incubation. Protein and peptide concentration were determined before and after fermentation, then biological active peptides were isolated or separated and purified by gel filtration column of Sephadex G25. Finally antibacterial activity of the isolated peptides was study in vivo. The results of chemical analysis of fresh and fermented milk showed that the concentrations of protein were 0.817mg/ml and 0.501mg/ml before and after fermentation, respectively either peptide concentration were 0.4mg/ml before fermentation and 0.805mg/ml after fermentation. The number of starter was determining during the fermentation process after 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours of incubation and found an increase in the number of lactic acid bacteria. The initiation number was 6.2 × 105 but after the 24 hours the number increased of up to 1.3×106. Number of lactic bacteria decreased after 24 hours with the increase in the concentration of lactic acid combined with low pH value. Colonies of lactobacilli were isolated from fermented buffalo milk and was characterized by the typical characteristics for the purpose of a rating based on morphological and cultural characters. Gel filtration gave seventy-eight fractions. And depending on the absorbency on wavelength 280 were obtained four peaks, each peak represents a fraction. Peptide concentration was determined in each fraction, these concentrations were (0 and 0243 and 0902 and 0632) mg / ml of fraction 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Fraction three contained a high concentration of peptide. The antibacterial activity of the third fraction was estimated. The results showed that the bioactive peptides of fermented milk have good efficacy in the treatment of diarrhea in laboratory animals..

The protective effect of vitamins A, D3 and E on testicular damage induced by ketoconazole in male mice

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 123-133

The study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of the combination of multivitamins AD3E against the testicular injury induced by using of ketoconazole in male mice. Eighteen adults male albino mice (Musmuscullus) weighing about 25 gm and aged 60 days were utilized in this study. Animals were kept in same environmental conditions, and divided into three equal groups. Control group has been given olive oil (0.2 ml) orally by gastric gavage tube, and at the same time given normal saline (0.125 ml) injected intra peritoneally once daily for 10 successive days and consider as placebo. T1 group treated with ketoconazole 100mg/kg BW administered orally plus intra-peritoneal injection of (Vitol-140®) a combination of vitamins AD3E in a dose of 400,000 IU/kg BW vitamin A, 200,000 IU/kg BW vitamin D3, and 100mg/kg BW of vitamin E once daily for 10 successive days. T2 group were treated with ketoconazole alone in a dose of 100mg/kg BW given orally for 10 successive days. After 10 days animals were sacrificed, orchiectomy was performed, and the testis was processed for histopathological examinations with light microscope after staining with (H&E) stain. Calculation of spermatogonia, primary and secondary cells were counted for 20 seminiferous tubules in treated and control groups. In T2 group there was massive destruction of the testicular tissue characterized by abnormal splintered architecture of the tissue. The cellular mass and density of the tubules were suppressed accompanied by a suppression of spermatogenesis process within the seminiferous tubules, with vacuolation of spermatogonia and presence of multinucleated spermatid giant cells. Also there was few number of Leydig cells between the seminiferous tubules in compared with control group. While in T1 group there was complete spermatogenesis within the seminiferous tubules. There were normal spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes and spermatid. Also there were a high numbers of Leydig cells between the seminiferous tubules, and the fields resemble that of control group. The number of primary and secondary spermatogonia was registered a significant difference between control and the treatment groups in all studied parameter (spermatogonia, the primary and the secondary cells). The mean number of spermatogonia in control group was significantly higher than (T2) group while no significant differences between control and the (T1) group. The mean number of primary and secondary spermatocyte show significant difference between control and (T2) groups. also there was a significant difference between (T1) and (T2) groups. AD3E .

Detection of E. coli isolated from cheese by using virulence factors by PCR technique in AL-diwaniyia city

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 134-138

The study was conduct to detection of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) by important virulence factors genes such as hemolysin toxin genes (hlyA and hlyB) by using PCR technique from cattle milk product (cheese). Escherichia coli is an important bacterium that can cause food borne disease, the raw milk, milk products, and undercooked ground meat products are the primary sources of outbreaks. A total 50 chees sample was collected from local market in al-diwaniyia city the study was done in period between August and October 2014. The PCR primers for hlyA and hlyB gene were designed by this study from NCBI-Genbank published sequence. The PCR results was show (38) positive isolates out of 50 isolates at (76%), (23) isolates producing hlyA gene and (15) isolates producing hlyB gene whereas (9) of positive isolates were producing both hemolysin toxin genes. In conclusion, the PCR was appeared very sensitive and highly specific assay serve as suitable molecular diagnostic tool for detection Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli producing hemolysin toxins..

Isolation and identification of Melissococcus plutonius from European foulbrood infected beehives and in vivo using of oxytetracycline for treatment

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 139-144

European foulbrood (EFB) is an infectious and contagious bacterial disease of honeybee larvae caused by (Melissococcus plutonius) affects primarily the young larvae (less than 48 hrs. old), and kill mainly the unsealed larvae at the age of 4 to 5 days. The aim of the present study was the isolation and diagnosis of M. plutonius that cause European foulbrood disease in beehives and used oxytetracycline in treatment of this disease (in vivo). The infected larvae were detected by the clinical signs appears; firstly the larvae become flaccid and twisted in C- shape, the affected brood appeared yellowish, cream-colored, and later brown to almost black that can easily be removed from the cells. Sixty nine swabs samples were collected from bees cells in Hila city. Samples were cultured on selective, differential media, and biochemical tests. All positive samples for M. plutonius, were subcultures on nutrient agar, blood agar and yeast extract agar, and incubated at 35˚C for a week under anaerobic condition. Results declare presence of 57 samples (82.6%) give positive result of M. plutonius, while 12 (17.4%) samples were negative. Bacteria appears as a Gram-positive lanceolatecoccus, slender rods with a tendency to form chains. Results also showed that nine days treatment with oxytertracycline decrease the mortality rate, the disease was disappear, and the infected larvae sealed and returned to normal. In conclusion: The study found that the EFB was decreased when oxytetracycline used as treatment..

Molecular study to detection and genotyping of Entamoeba spp. in cattle and sheep

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 145-151

The aim of the study was to diagnose the Entamoeba spp. in cattle and sheep by using PCR method, for identified some of these species used the Nested-PCR, and identified genotypes of E. histolytica by RT-PCR and Syber Green I dye. Forty eight (48) fecal samples (24 cows and 24 sheep) positive with microscopic test were collected from the beginning of October 2014 until the end of March 2015, then examined with PCR for detection of Entamoeba spp., species identified by Nested –PCR, then genotypes of E. histolytica determined by amplification of SREHP gene using RT-PCR with SYBR Green I dye and melting curve analysis. Results were recorded infection of cows and sheep by (E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. bovis) in (78.5%, 28.5%, 21.5%) ratio respectively. Five genotypes (I, II, III, IV, V) of E. histolytica were detected. All the genotypes infect the cows but the sheep infected with two (II,V) genotypes only. In conclusion: E. histolytica has wide spectrum of genotypes, some of these genotypes unable to infection sheep. .

Frequency and distribution of the enteroendocrine cells in small and large intestine of one humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 152-159

Enteroendocrine cells in some portions of intestinal tract plays as endocrine portion by secreting some hormones that play key roles in the regulation of certain important organs. The aim of this study is to examine in detail the relative frequency and regional distribution of enteroendocrine cells in some portions of intestinal tract of the camels. The regional localization of the endocrine cells in the some portion intestinal tract of the camels (Camelus dromedarius), are inspected using immunohistochemistry techniques. Specimens from eight dromedarian camels (Camelus dromedarius) of both sexes with age ranging from 2 - 6 years are investigated. The immunohistochemistry was performed using chromogranin A (ChA) and four types of hormones. Immune detection findings demonstrated that in the camel small intestine, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are expressed in a subset of epithelial cells along the crypt villus axis. While, in large intestine (colon) of camels, glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) expressed in colonic gland. The cells are contained gut hormones appeared to be either triangular or flask-like in shape as indicate that they are enteroendocrine cells. Immunohistochemistry of serial sections showed that (ChA), which is a specific marker for enteroendocrine cells, is indeed expressed with glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1), glucagon-like peptide-2(GLP-2) and cholecystokinin (CCK) confirms the site of expression to be in enteroendocrine cells. There is caudal decrease in K-cells and I-cells along of the camel small intestine, while increase in L-cells in the colon..

Ultrasonographic anatomy of the goat eye

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 160-164

Domestic goats (Capra hircus) are a ruminant species important in the economy of several countries. Considering the health implications and the economic potential of goats, the issue of investigating the clinical characteristics of goat's eye is of considerable relevance. In goats, Pinkeye (keratoconjunctivitis) is the inflammation of the inside of the eyelid and considers as a highly contagious infection that spreads through contact, outbreaks frequently occur when new goats are introduced to the herd. So this study aimed to report the normal echobiometric anatomy of Iraqi goats' eye in order to know the clinical aspect of the ocular structures and the normal range of ocular parameters by using the sonographic machine. Ocular echobiometric inspections were achieved on 20 goats (10-14 months old) from local breed. Ultrasonographic images were obtained with a 7.5 MHz linear probe in the sagittal plane. Results showed; that the axial globe length (AGL) was (20.4±0.2mm), anterior chamber depth (ACD) (1.98±0.14mm), vitreous chamber depth (VCD) (9.85±0.12mm), sclera-retinal rim thickness (SRT) (1.6±0.08mm), lens thickness (LT) (7.77±0.22mm) and corneal thickness (CT) (0.59±0.01mm) respectively. The estimated dimensions of the normal ocular components which gained from this study by using sonographic machine give eminent schedule to veterinarians in the appraisal of ocular diseases in goats..