Print ISSN: 1818-5746

Online ISSN: 2313-4429

Volume 15, Issue 2

Volume 15, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2016, Page 1-118


Quercetin role in moderating the side effects of chemical drug Doxorubicin in Troponin level and some cardiac enzymes in local male rabbits

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 1-7

The study aim to detect the treatment effect of Quercetin in mitigation the toxic effect of Doxorubicin drug in heart function in 32 local male rabbits divided randomly into four equal groups treated for 28 days as follow; Control group given daily distilled water orally and injected with 4ml normal saline weekly. First treatment group given orally 10mg/kg Quercetin daily and injected with 4ml normal saline weekly. Second treatment group injected with 4mg/kg doxorubicin weekly and given daily distilled water orally. The third treatment group given 10mg/kg Quercetin daily and injected with 4mg/kg doxorubicin weekly. Results showed a significant (P<0.05) increase of Troponin, CK-MB and LDH levels in second group treated with doxorubicin only compared with normal levels of these parameters in control group, conversely there is positive interrelating non significant (P>0.05) among control group and other groups which treated with Quercetin, first as well as third groups in which Quercetin reduces all parameters significantly (P<0.05). In conclusion; The Quercetin has important role in reduced negative side effects of Doxorubicin in heart function. .

Detection of shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli isolated from mastitis milk of sheep by qPCR technique

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 1-5

This study was conducted to determine the Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli isolated from mastitis milk samples of sheep that collected from Diwanyia city by qPCR technique. A total of (60) clinical investigated mastitis milk samples from sheep were subjected to bacterial DNA extraction by using (PrestoTM Mini gDNA Bacteria Kit). The extracted DNA subjected to Real-Time PCR technique (qPCR) for detection of shiga toxin 1 (stx1) gene. Results were revealed that the mastitis sheep are more prevalence for shedding shiga toxin 1 producing Escherichia coli (13.3%) of (8/60) positive samples. In conclusion, the Real-Time PCR technique was shown high specific and rapid method in detection of shiga toxin gene and the sheep which infected by mastitis can be carried the shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli, that may be considered to be risk factor of human infections..

Toxicopathological effects of sodium dichromate (chromium CrVI) on small intestine of laboratory albino rats (Rattus norvegicus)

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 6-10

In order to determine the toxicopathological effects of sodium dichromate in the small intestine of laboratory albino rats, the present study performed on 30 albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) divided into five equal groups; G1 was daily administered 3 mg / 100 g. B.W of sodium dichromate orally for 30 days. G2 was daily administered 9 mg /100 g. B.W of sodium dichromate orally for 30 days. G3 was daily administered 3 mg /100 g. B.W of sodium dichromate orally for 60 days. G4 was daily administered 9 mg /100 g. B.W of sodium dichromate orally for 60 days, and G5 was served as control. The results showed mild atrophy of the intestinal villi with marked hyperplasia of goblet cells in G1, while showed moderate atrophy of intestinal villi with some areas of necrosis of enterocytes with marked infiltration of inflammatory cells in G2. G3 showed severe atrophy in the intestinal villi with infiltration of some inflammatory cells. G4 showed severe atrophy of intestinal villi with area of metaplasia of columnar epithelium to squamous epithelium (squamous metaplasia). In conclusion; the sodium dichromate had major toxic effects to the epithelium of small intestine especially in highly repeated doses..

The effect of diet supplementation with crude curcumin and modified curcumin (Force 6 Poultry) on some physiological and immunological traits in broiler chicks

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 8-12

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of diet supplement with pure curcumin and modified curcumin (Force 6 Poultry) in certain physiological and immunological parameters in broiler chicks, as well as the comparison between the two types of curcumin as feedforage addition forage. 150 one day-old broiler chicks (Ross) used in this research, these chicks were divided into three major groups (50 chicks per group) included: the first (control) group, the second group given curcumin 0.05% with feed and the third group given modified curcumin (force 6 poultry) 0.05% with the feed. Measuring the level of prostaglandin (PE2), interleukin (IL-12), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and catalase (CAT) enzyme in the blood serum, on a weekly basis for the chicks that have been reared up to 42 day on the ground, with providing adequate health conditions with an abundance of water and the feed. The results showed that the level of prostaglandin (PGE2) dramatically and significantly (p≤0.05) decrease with age of the chicks, as well as the significant decline (p≤0.05) in both pure curcumin and modified curcumin groups (Force 6 Poultry). The interleukin IL-12 has the lowest percentage in chicks serum in the pure curcumin and modified curcumin (Force 6 Poultry) groups at 42 days age. As well as tumor necrosis factor TNF has recorded the lowest rate in the blood serum in chicks fed on feed containing modified curcumin. Finally, there was significant (p≤0.05) increased in the level of catalase with ageing in chicks treated with both types of curcumin. It was concluded that diet supplement with both of the crude curcumin and modified curcumin (Force 6 Poultry) were have significantly improving effect on physiological and immunological traits in broilers. .

Immunomodulatory effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus on Newcastle disease vaccine in broiler

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 11-15

The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus (ES) extract on the serum antibody response to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) vaccination, phagocytic index (PI) and stress index (SI) in broiler chicks. Two hundred one-day old broiler chicks (Ross-308), were randomly divided into two main groups GA and GB (Each one 100 birds), each of GA and GB chicks were divided to 4 subgroups, 25 birds each, The 4 subgroups were symbolically named G1, G2, G3 and G4 for birds of GA, according to the three vaccination methods and control, respectively. As well G5, G6, G7 and G8 were referred to the birds of GB. Subgroups subjected to different methods of vaccination against ND (live attenuated Lasota strain) at 10 days-old, orally (G1&G5), oculonasal (G2&G6) and S/C (G3&G7) with killed Lasota strain, and non-vaccinated control (G4&G8). Daily oral administration of 0.05 ml of 100% ES extract concentration/ bird, to all birds of G1, G2, G3 and G4 to the end of study. The results of present study showed that the ES significantly increased specific antibody titer against (NDV) vaccination, increase phagocytic activity of heterophils and decrease stress index at (P <0.05). (P<0.05).

Effect of some feed additives on the impact of experimentally infected chickens with Salmonella

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 13-19

The present study was designed to investigate the positive effects that may result from the use commercial organic acids mixture X-Mold Cid® and pomegranate peels as nutritional supplements to reduce the severity of infection with Salmonella by reducing the bacterial count and reduce the infection and incidence or shedding rate. The experiment included the study of efficiency of additions food additives mentioned against the experimental infection of Salmonella enteritidis, 120 chicks aged 5 days divided in to four groups each group contain 30 bird were used, the first group represented the negative control and dealt with the basic diet and the second group represented the positive control has dealt with the basic diet and was given a challenge dose (1 × 108 ml / cfu) of the S. enteritidis bacteria. The two other groups were challenged by the same dose, the third group give pomegranate peels with dose of 5 g / kg feed and the fourth group give a mixture of organic acids at a dose of 1 ml / L of water. The experiment lasted for 40 days for evaluating the efficiency of food additives against Salmonella enteritidis. The results showed good ability of both additives in reducing the severity of the infection by reducing the shedding rate of the S. enteritidis and the percentage of infection of cecal contents as well as the total number of bacteria. Some blood parameters have been studied also which included a number of white blood and the ratio of H / L cells, the study recorded the increase significantly (P <0.05) in white blood cells rate and a significant decrease (P <0.05) in proportion H / L in treated groups..

Comparative study of serum protein status of local breeds sheep and goats in Basra province

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 16-19

A total of twenty eight local breed sheep and goats (14 of each) of both sexes were used in this study to evaluate the blood protein status. Animals were divided into four equal groups: involving G1 (7 ewes), G2 (7 rams), G3 (7 does), and G4 (7 bucks). Blood biochemical analysis included estimation of total protein, albumin and globulins were done. Results displayed that the levels of total proteins were (6.15 ± 0.32 g/dL), (6.28 ± 0.37 g/dL), (6.62 ± 0.31 g/dL) and (6.52 ± 0.12 g/dL) in G1, G2, G3 and G4 respectively. Levels of albumin were (3.84 ± 0.37 g/dL), (4.11 ± 0.36 g/dL), (3.52 ± 0.22 g/dL) and (4.30 ± 0.30 g/dL) in groups (1, 2, 3 and 4) respectively. Levels of globulins were (2.31± 0.47g/dL), (2.97 ± 0.47g/dL), (3.10± 0.46g/dL) and (2.22 ± 0.34g/dL) in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The results of blood proteins showed no significant differences between all groups of the study in regard to the sex. .

Diagnostic study for internal parasites in goat of Al-diwaniyah governorate

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 20-24

The study was involved examination of (275) fecal samples from local goats of both sexes in Al-Diwaniyah province. The study extended from beginning of September 2014 till end of February 2015 for detection of the main internal parasites that found in the alimentary canals of goats. Results showed that the numbers of manifested animals were 165 (60%).This study revealed that the local goats had manifested with three genera of Nematodes these were Ostertagia spp., Trichostrongylus spp. and Chabertia spp. with manifestation ratio reached to 74.5%, 81.81% and 3% respectively. As well as this study recorded manifestation of the animals with two genera of intestinal protozoa which were Eimeria spp. in 162 samples and Cryptosporidium spp. with 62 samples and the percentage reached 96.9% and 37.5 % respectively. Five species of Eimeria were diagnosed; E. arlongi, E. jolchijevi ,E. apsheronica, E. caprovina and E. kochari. Mixed infections (by helminthes and protozoa) also enlisted and reached 120 (72.7%) cases among examined animals, while the single infections were 45 (27%) cases. 27 % .

Effect of Peganum harmala seeds alcoholic extract on kidney efficiency, thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroid gland hormones in local female rabbits

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 20-24

Peganum harmala belong to the Jigo phalluses family has many compounds as alkaloids, Saponines steroids and lignin which are used as a medicinal components which serve as a regulator to endocrine activity, in this study, twenty adult female local rabbits with weighing 1500±100gms, and aged 240 ±10 days were divided into 2 groups: the control group which fed on diet and water ad libitum and the treatment group which administrated orally (by stomach tube) 10cc with 13.5% of peganum harmala alcoholic extract daily for 14 consecutive days, and at the 15th day, blood samples were collected. Serum level of Triiodothyronin (T3), Thyroxin (T4) and Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), uric acid and creatinine were measured by using radioimmunoassay method. Results were revealed that the 90mg/kg dosage of peganum harmala alcoholic extract increased significantly (p<0.05) the levels of the urea and uric acid when compared with control, while the creatinine has not recorded significant variances when compared with the control group, on the other hand, the effect of Peganum harmala seed alcoholic extract on the TSH, T3, T4 levels revealed that these hormones decreased significantly (p<0.05) when compared with the control group. In conclusion the results of this study indicate that the 90mg/kg of alcoholic extract of Peganum harmala seeds has increased blood urea and uric acid, decreased blood TSH as well as hormones of thyroid gland.

Detection the level of Heat Shock Protein70 (HSP70) and its relationship with puberty in female rats exposed to heat stress

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 25-30

The study aimed to estimate the level of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and their relationship to puberty in female rats exposed to acute and chronic heat stress. Forty five (45) pups female rats divided randomly at weaning to 3 groups (15 females in each group). Group (1) (non-treated control group), group (2) (exposed to chronic heat stress) (38C°for 1 hour) daily from weaning to puberty, group (3) (exposed to acute heat stress (38C° for 4 hours at 35 days age for 5 successive days). Each of these groups are subdivided to 3 stages (pre, at, post puberty) (5 females for each stage). Serum samples from each stage (30days pre-puberty, and the age was differs at pubertal stage according to effect stress factor on time of puberty, 70 days post puberty) were used for detection of (HSP70) and estradiol (E2) by sandwich ELISA. Results showed no significant differences in (HSP70) level between the stages of all groups, while the estradiol significantly increase in group (3) in comparison with other two groups (2nd stage) and the estradiol showed significant increase in group (2), in group (1) and (3) (3rd stage). The first vaginal opening appeared in group (2) then group (3) and finally in group (1). The correlation between (HSP70) and estradiol was variant and swaying. Thus (HSP70) not affected by induced heat stress in female rats..

Comparative histological study of the skin layers of black goats in north Iraq

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 25-30

In this study the histological characteristic of skin layers in black goat in Kurdistan region were investigated. A total of 10 male black goats of different ages were studied. Samples of skin were taken from the different regions of body (back, flank, abdomen and scrotum) to determine the thickness of epidermis, dermis with its layers papillary and reticular, thickness of whole of skin, hair follicles of skin with (primary and secondary follicles) and other skin appendages. The result show there was variation between the thickness with different layers of skin samples, the whole thickness of dermis were recorded in flank region 2688 µm, 1887.2 µm in abdomen while in back and scrotum was less 1536 µm, 1248 µm respectively, and the whole thickness of epidermis of back region were more than abdomen, scrotum and flank region. The whole thickness of skin was 2793.2 µm, 2092.4 µm, 1646.8 µm, 1302 µm in flank, abdomen, back and scrotum respectively. This variation which we founded with this study with variation of skin appendages in different regions of body compared to other studies belongs to farm species of animals..

Experimental study of ruminal acidosis and its effect on some serum elements in lambs

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 31-34

Rumen acidosis is one of the most important disease in ruminants which occurred due to fermentation problems that threatens the life of the animal in most cases, which occurs as a result of taking large quantities of highly fermentable carbohydrate. Because the importance of the disease and its direct impact on some of the elements of blood, so this study was conducted to found the relationship between rumen acidosis and its effect on some of the elements in the blood serum. Ten Awassi lambs aged 6-8 months, weights ranging between 20-31 kg. were used. The experiment was conducted at the station in College of Veterinary Medicine. Lambs were divided randomly into two groups (5 lambs per group). Treatment group was given 10 g/kg of sugar at the first day, then fed on Alzahdi dates for 8 weeks. Serum calcium values observed a few declined in treatment group, the highest decline was showed at 72 hours (8.69 mmol./L) after induction of the ruminal acidosis. Also slight decrease of sodium level at 36 hours post giving of sugar in the treatment group (134.54 ± 5.94). While potassium level was showed at 12 hours compared with the control group. The decline continued until 72 hours back to normal in the second week, No significant different was showing between treated and control groups. This study was concluded to study the effect of the ruminal acidosis on calcium and sodium and potassium level in the blood serum. .

In vivo and in vitro antibacterial assessment of Nerium oleander aqueous leaf extract against bacterial pathogens and its effect in treatment of wounds

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 31-39

The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of aqueous leaf extract Nerium oleander against five identified bacteria namely Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis and role of extract in treatment of wounds in laboratory animal. Antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts was determined by disc diffusion and well diffusion method on Muller–Hinton agar. Twelve laboratory animals (Rabbit) use to evaluate the role of aqueous leaf extract of N. oleander on healing of wound and divided into four equal groups. Control, Fucine ointment, N. oleander 80% and N. oleander 100 % groups. As the inhibitory zones were more at 60% and 80% in comparison with 2.5 % , 5 % and 10%, and the widest were at 100 % against all bacteria species and show significant difference at (P<0.05) between susceptibility of bacteria species to different concentration of aqueous leaf extract of Nerium oleander in agar well diffusion exhibit a significantly higher zones of inhibitions against all bacteria spp. in used at 100%, 80%, 60% in comparison with 2.5%, 5% and10% concentration more than in agar disc method, which did not exhibit any inhibitory zone against all bacteria spp. at 2.5% and the narrowest inhibitory zones was against Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. at 5% and 10% Whenever, at 100% and 80% the widest inhibitory zones was against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis and less than against Staph. and Bacillus spp. Hematological changes show significant difference at P<0.05 in erythrocyte indices and leukocyte count. Whenever, effect of extract on treatment of wound show complete healing at 6-7 days compared with local antibiotic fucine ointment without complication. In conclusion; Aqueous leaf extracts of N. oleander have inhibitory activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria this indicates of the presence antimicrobial compounds. Leaf extracts of N. oleander at 80-100 % can be used as local antibacterial and treatment of open wounds. .

Effect of heat stress on Leptin hormone level and their relationship with sexual puberty in male rats

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 35-40

This study aimed to show the effect of induced acute and chronic heat stress on leptin level and their relationship to puberty in male rats. Forty five (45) pups male rats divided randomly at weaning to 3 groups (15 males in each group). G1 (non-treated-control group), G2 (exposed to chronic heat stress) (38C°for 1 hour) daily from weaning to puberty, and G3 (exposed to acute heat stress (38C° for 4 hours at 35 day age for 5 successive days). Each of these groups are subdivided to 3 stages (pre, at , post puberty) (5 males for each stage). Serum samples from each stage of puberty were used for detection leptin and heat shock protein 70 by sandwich ELISA. The results showed significant increase of liptin in G2 and 3 in comparison with G1 (in pre and pubertal stages), while in the post pubertal stage this hormone decreased in G2 in comparison with G3. No significant differences between the 3 groups in pre and pubertal stages, while there is significant decrease in HSP70 occur in G2 in comparison with G1 and 2. First sperm occur in G3 at day 50 of age then G1 at 51 days, but the appearance of sperm delayed till 65 day age in G2. Thus the heat effect was positive in G3 and cause increasing HSP70 then leptin which lead to occurrence of puberty in this group firstly, while the puberty delayed in G2 as a result of negative effect of continuous exposure to heat in male rats. .

Anaerobic bacterial isolation with histopatholgical exam of liver abscesses in cattle, sheep, and camels in Al-Qadisiyah province

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 40-46

The study was conducted to isolation of anaerobic bacteria and histopathological examination of liver abscesses. Seventy five liver abscesses from cattle (30 samples), sheep (35 samples) and camel (10 samples) at the period extended from October 2015 to March 2016, were collected from the slaughter house in Al-Qadisiyah province in Iraq. The percentages of macroscopic examination included (70% and 90%) in cattle and camel respectively, and less in sheep (45.71%) of single liver abscess while multi-abscesses reveal higher percentage (54.29%) in sheep than in cattle and camel. The abscesses swabs were cultured for anaerobic bacteria and the following seven species of bacteria were identified: Fusobacterium necropherum (34.78%),(13.64%), Clostridium novyi (21.74%),(31.82%), Cl. chauvoei (4.35%),(13.64%), Eubacterium lentum (13.04%),(4.54%), Cl. innocuum (8.7%),(9.09%), Cl. sordellii (13.04%),(18.18%) and Propionibacterium arabinosum (4.35%),(9.09%) in cattle and sheep respectively and F. necropherum (50%), Cl. chauvoei (25%) and Cl. sordellii (25%) in camel. In cattle, histopathological examination of liver abscess in cattle infected with F. necropherum and Cl. novyi reveal presence of caseous necrosis, calcification, inflammatory cells, fibrous connective tissue, and vaculation of hepatocytes with langhans giant cell. In sheep, the lesion of liver abscess infected with Cl. novyi reveal severe hemorrhage, dilation of sinusoids, proliferation of kupffer cells, accumulation of infiltrated inflammatory cells, and with Propionibacterium arabinosum included presence of granulomatous lesion with caseous necrosis, calcification and cellular debris in the center of lesion, inflammatory cells, the lesion surrounding with fibrous connective tissue. In camel, infected with Cl. chauvoei contain presence of purulent lesion with cellular debris, fibrosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells and liver abscess infected by Cl. sordellii high proliferation and hyperplasia of bile duct and dilation of sinusoids with proliferation of kupffer cells. .

Detection of Blastocystis in cats in Nineveh province- Iraq

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 41-44

The present study was designed to detect Blastocystis in fecal specimens of cats in Nineveh province -Iraq, which may be implicated as a reservoir for human infection. A total of fifty fresh fecal specimens were collected randomly from March to June 2014 and examined using Logal's iodine stain, concentrated Sheather's sugar flotation technique and Trichrome staining techniques. The specimens subsequently examined under light microscope for the presence of Blastocystis sp. and also to determine the morphology of the detected cells which includes the shape and size. The results showed that Blastocystis was detected in 18 (36%) fecal specimens and the vacuolar form appeared more than the other morphological forms, also variable sizes of Blasticystis was recorded ranging (15-20 µm). This is the first report of Blastocystis from cats in Nineveh province -Iraq. These preliminary results suggest the cats could be considered as a large potential reservoir of Blastocystis..

Epidemiological study for ticks infestation in cattle in Baghdad city-Iraq

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 45-51

This study was conducted to detect the ectoparasites infestation by examining 1933 cows slaughtered at AL-Shaala and Al-Karckh abattoirs and in places those animals sold in AL-Shaala and in 7 Nissan, Al-Ameria (IPA) and the Veterinary College plans in Baghdad. Cows aged ranged from 6 months up to 8 Years (6mo-8yr). The study recorded cow infestation with the following tick species: Hyalomma detritum, Boophilus annulatus and Rhipicephalus turanicus at a rate of 12.9%. The highest infestation rate was 28.49% in September and lowest rate was 0.6% in November with significant difference (P<0.05) was recorded and the rates of infestation with these three species were 9.26%, 2.74% and 0.9% respectively. The highest rate of infestation with ticks was 14.1% in cows at age of (3-<5.5yr) while the lowest rate was 11.6% in cows at age of (5.5-8yr), without significant difference. .

Effect of quercetin on gene expression of male hormone in adult Wistar rats exposure to the oxidative stress by lead acetate

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 47-52

The study was aimed to investigate the beneficial effect of plant source quercetin extracted in improvement of reproductive system efficiency of adult males rats exposed to the oxidative stress by lead acetate. Forty males Wistar rats (6 months old, and 175±10gm weight) were divided randomly into four equal groups and treated for 60 days as follows: The first group (C) was given drinking water as a control group. Second group (T1) was given quercetin (300 mg/kg/ B.W) orally. Third group (T2) given lead acetate (10 mg/kg/ B.W) orally, and the fourth group (T3) was given lead acetate (10mg/kg/B.W) orally for 30 days then given quercetin (300mg/kg/B.W) for 30 days. All animals were sacrificed at the end of experiment and samples of testis were taken to study gene expression for CYP11A1 which responsible for testosterone hormone production, LH receptor gene which responsible for production ICSH receptors and LH beta sub unit gene which responsible for ICSH production. Results showed there was significant increase (p≤0.05) in fold change of gene expression levels of (CYP11A1,LH beta sub unit gene and LHr gene) in T1 group compared with control. Also there was significant decrease (p≤0.05) in fold change of gene expression levels of (CYP11A1) in T2 in compared with control. While the fold changes of gene expression levels of LH beta sub unit gene and LHr gene not show significant differences between C and T2 groups. Also there was significant increase (p≤0.05) in fold change of gene expression levels of (CYP11A1, LH beta sub unit gene and LHr gene) in T3 compared with T2. It could be concluded that quercetin causes up regulation to gene expression of (CYP11A1) gene, LH beta subunit gene, and LH receptor gene (LHr) in adult males Wistar rats exposed to the oxidative stress by lead acetate. .

Effect of fructooligosaccharide on humoral immunity induced by infectious bursal disease vaccine and some hematological parameters during aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 53-58

The study was conducted to investigate the positive effects of prebiotic Fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) on humoral immunity induced by infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine and some hematological parameters of broilers with and without feeding aflatoxin contaminated diet. A total number of 120 one day old unsexed Hubbard broiler chicks were used in this study till 42 days end of experiment, the chicks were randomly assigned according to diet supplementation into four groups (30 chicks for each) as follows: G1 Basal diet, G2 was fed basal diet plus prebiotic (FOS) 0.25g/kg, G3 have been treated with AFB1100 µg/kg, and G4 have been treated with AFB1100 µg/kg plus prebiotic (FOS) 0.25g/kg. Results of G2 showed a significant enhancement of the immune status, while hematological parameters such as red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cell count (WBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were within normal values. G3 showed that AFB1 at 100 ppb broiler diet cause significant (P<0.05) decrease in antibody titers against (IBD) vaccine and decrease in hematological parameters mentioned above, while G4 obviously showed the capability of prebiotic (FOS) to minimize the undesirable effects of aflatoxinB1 on immunity and hematology. This study proved the importance of prebiotic (FOS) as feed additive in improvement the immune response of the broiler chickens and minimizes the adverse effects of AFB1 on antibody titer and some hematological parameters..

Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum from feces samples of human and camels by using direct Polymerase Chain Reaction assay technique

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 59-62

The study was designed for molecular detected of Cryptosporidium parvum from human and camel by using direct Polymerase Chain Reaction assay technique. A total of 50 fecal samples from human and 50 samples from camel collected. The Cryptosporidium parvum positive isolates were identified by using specific primers for heat shock protein gene that designed in this study using NCBI-Genbank data base (Genbank code: GQ259151.1) and primer3 plus program for primer design. Results show that prevalence of infection with Cryptosporidium parvum was (24%) 12 positive out of 50 human fecal samples, whereas the prevalence of infection with Cryptosporidium parvum in camel was (14%) 7 positive out of 50 fecal samples. The study demonstrates that the direct Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay technique is a simple, rapid and valuable tool for the detection Cryptosporidium parvum. Cryptosporidium parvum.

Effect of Artemisia herb on induced hyperglycemia in wistar rats

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 63-69

The study was carried out to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of Artemisia herb aqueous extract on postprandial blood glucose in normoglycemic and dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemic wistar rats. Sixty adult male wistar rats were used; rats were assigned to six equal groups (10 per each). Hyperglycemia had been induced in 40 rats by injection of single dose of dexamethasone (8 mg/2 ml, s.c.). Normal groups drenched the herb extract orally and with drinking water in 100%, and 50% concentration (NA100%, NA50%) respectively. After induction and ensuring of hyperglycemia, distil water (DW), and the (PIA100%, PIA50%) treated groups with herb extract 100%, 50% concentration respectively, finally the (M) group (metformin 500mg/ml) was treated by drenched with metformin 500 mg orally for 10 consecutive days for all group. Results were revealed that drenching of Artemisia herba- alba herb 100% aqueous extract has a highly significant (p<0.01) hypoglycemic effect on postprandial blood glucose in both normoglycemic and hyperglycemic rats comparing to normal values and to metformin respectively, whereas hypoglycaemic effect of Ah extract 50% was significant (p<0.05) on postprandial blood glucose in normoglycemic rats comparing to normal values and highly significant (p<0.01) in hyperglycemic rats comparing to metformin. It can be concluded that drenching of aqueous extract of Ah has potent hypoglycemic effect in experimentally induced hyperglycemic rats..

Molecular study of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia lamblia which cause diarrhea in camels (Camillus dromedaries) in Al-Diwaniyah and Al-Najaf provinces /Iraq

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 70-75

Because of little studies which related with camels this is the first study in Iraq aimed to description of Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia lamblia in it. Out of 200 fecal samples of camels from the slaughter house and other areas of Al-Diwaniyah and Al-Najaf provinces. Some of camels suffered from diarrhea and the others asymptomatic animals within the period from October 2015 to the end of April 2016. The study showed the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was (55%) by Modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain method, while the prevalence of Giardia infection was (20%) by Lugol's iodine and by floatation with zinc sulfate solution. Regarding to the prevalence depending the PCR technique there were (88%) of Cryptosporidium infection while the prevalence of Giardia infection was (39%). This study concluded that the camels consider source of infection with both genus of studied parasites which consider zoonotic parasites. The routine examinations necessary to detection the zoonotic diseases..

Effects of grape seed oil (Vitis vinifera) on fertility of male local rabbits

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 76-81

The study was conducted to investigate the effect of (Vitis vinifera) grape seed oil on testosterone, FSH and LH hormones concentration, in addition to investigate the histopatho-logical effects on the testis and epididymis of male local rabbits. Twenty four male rabbits weighing (1450-1550) grams were divided into three equal groups. G1 the control group was gives only (0.2) ml tap water orally, while G2, and G3 were gives grape seed oil orally (0.1) ml/kg, and (0.2) ml/kg BW respectively, once daily for (1) month. Results were found that the administration of grape seed oils produce no significance decrease (P>0.05) in FSH, and LH concentration, while a significance (P<0.05) decrease of testosterone levels, besides inducing too many deleterious effects in the histopathological structure of the testes and epididymis. Key words: Grape seed oil, testosterone, FSH, LH..

Effects of use grape seeds oil (Vitis vinifera) on blood picture and some physiological parameters in local male rabbits

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 82-86

Study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) oil on the levels of total protein, albumin, globulin, and some hematological parameters in local male rabbits. Twenty four rabbits (weight between 1450-1550 grams) were divided into three equal groups; G1 the control group, gives only 0.2 ml tap water orally, while G2 and G3 were gives orally grape seed oil (0.1ml/kg and 0.2ml/kg respectively) for one month. Results were designate that the administration of grape seed oil at 0.1ml/Kg. BW produces significance P˂0.05 increase in values of Hb, PCV, total protein and globulin. In the dose of 0.2 ml/Kg. BW, there was significance P˂0.05 decrease in values of WBCs, Hb and PCV, while there was no significance in both doses to RBCs and Albumin. In conclusion that the administration of grape seed oil in low dose produce good effects whereas administration of it in high dose produce bad effects on the body functions..

Diagnostic study of Cryptosporidiosis in sheep in Al-Qadisiyah province

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 87-91

The present study was designed and conducted during the period from September 2015 until April 2016 to evaluate the microscopic features of the Cryptosporidium parasite, and using of ocular micrometer for determination of length and width of oocysts. One hundred (100) fecal samples were collected from sheep from different areas in AL-Qadisiyah province. Results of microscopic examination showed that the oocyst of parasite appeared oval or spherical in shape, measured from (4.5-5) µm, with a dark pink or red in color on a blue ground. Fifty one 51(51%) sheep out 100 cases were positive. The highest rate of infection was observed in (1-3) years of age with significant differences at (P<0.05) level. There was no effects of sex on infection rate in sheep, and also observed that the highest rate (89%) was seen in November, while the least rate (11.1%) was in February, so has been showed significant differences at (P>0.05). According to the area the highest rate of infection was (100%) that observed in Al-Shamia while the least rate of infection was (11.1%) that observed in Al-bidder and the different results showed in other regions with a significant difference at (P<0.05). (P<0.05).

Molecular identification of Mycoplasma agalactiae from mastitic milk of lactating ewes in Al-Muthana provinceIraq

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 92-96

Mastitis is the main signs of contagious agalactia syndrome in sheep and goats, which is caused by Mycoplasma agalactiae and induces heavy economic losses. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify M. agalactia from mastitic lactating ewes at Al-Muthana province. Clinical mastitic milk collected from infected animals. The collected samples were transferred in a transport medium which contained PPLO broth, horse serum and yeast extract at cool conditions to the lab. All the samples were carried out by PCR and cultured on PPLO agar too. The results showed that, from the total of 150 mastitic milk samples, 40% was positive by culture for growth of mycoplasma. Out of 60 positive culture there was 35(58.3%) positive for Mycoplasma spp. PCR, and 435 (11.4%) were identified as Mycoplasma agalactiae by PCR. The lactating ewes with mycoplasmas mastitis exhibited non-significant variation in temperature, respiration and pulsation rates when compared with healthy ewes group..

Direct immunodiagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus in feces of stray, companion and policy dogs in Baghdad province - Iraq

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 97-101

Echinococcus granulosus is a cosmopolitan parasite affected mainly the dogs and can afflicted most animals resulting in an echinococcosis that persist endemically or high endemically in Middle Eastern countries involved Iraq. The main goal of this study was to use the direct ELISA as a diagnostic tool in detection of the causative agent in only lived dogs of some regions in Baghdad province-Iraq. The fecal samples were collected from a totally (70) dogs (comprised; 38 stray, 22 companion and 10 policy dogs) during seven months. The direct ELISA techniques revealed that the infection rates were (18.42%) and (4.55%) in stray and companion dogs respectively, with absence of infection in policy dogs. Also, the degree of infection in seropositive dogs was (62.5%), (12.5%) and (25%) for mild, moderate and strong infections respectively. Statistically the significant differences had been reported between the examined dogs and within the positive dogs at (P˂0.05). (P<0.05).

Comparative histological and histochemical study of flank region skin, in camel, cow and buffalo

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 102-107

The skin represents protective cover for the body and making up 16 % of the body weight. The current study included 15 specimens of skin flank region of three animals (cow, buffalo, and camel) fixed in 10 % formalin and then processed through a serial steps for histological examinations, and stained with, Hematoxylin and Eosin, Van Gesion, and Periodic Acid Shiffe stains, for description of the histochemical and histological structures of the skin. Results showed the epidermis was composed of four layers. The maximum thickness of epidermis observed in buffalo's skin was (6.16±0.27 µ) and thinnest in camel's skin was (2.24 ±0.08µ).The results revealed that the dermis consist of two layers; papillary and reticular layers which contain primary and secondary hair follicles, and there was great variation in diameter, sebaceous and sweat glands. The thickness of dermis was (84 ± 1.26 µ, 61.6 ±3.7 µ, and 53.6 ± 2.03 µ) in camel, buffalo and cow respectively. The thickness of papillary layer in buffalo's skin appeared with high thickness in compare with skin of cow and camel, while the flank skin of camel have maximum thickness of reticular layer, corneal, dermis, and total skin (68.8±4.63µ, 1.06±0.13µ, 84±1.26µ,93.6±2.03µ) respectively. The sebaceous glands were simple branched and alveolar, present in large size and multi-lobular in skin of buffalo while in camel's skin appeared uni-lobular and small. All sweat glands in the flank region were of apocrine type; also differences were noticed in size and shape of these glands in studied animals. In buffalo it appeared small, single and few, but in camel was aggregation in large number spread in the dermis. In conclusion there are no differences in general structures of skin but thickness of layers varied among all the animals. .

Prevalence of medical and veterinary important Dipterans flies in Diyala province-Iraq

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 108-114

Fauna of Iraq-Diyala’s Calliphoridae and other Diptera flies of medically and veterinary importance was assessed by collection with hanging up modified baited flytrap. In this survey sex (6) genera and nine (9) species affiliated to Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae and Fanniidae families. The species identified were Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy 1830), C. vomitoria (Linnaeus 1758), Pollenia spp. (Robineau-Desvoidy 1830), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann 1830), L. sericata (Meigen 1826), Musca domestica (Linnaeus1758), M. sorbens (Wiedemann 1830), Muscina stabulans (Fallen 1817), Fannia canicularis (Linnaeus) and Sarcophaga africa (Wiedemann 1824). The modified fish baited adult flytrap used in this study was serviceable and could be profitable for animals protection and field routine flies sampling to study Calliphoridae and other flies diversity and population dynamics..

Study the histopathological changes accompanied with canine parvovirus infection

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 115-118

This study considered to be the first in Iraq intended to identify the gross and microscopic pathological alterations in the susceptible organs of the naturally infected pups were comer to Private Vet. Clinics in Baghdad. These infected cases were checked previously by rapid test to detect canine parvovirus antigen in canine feces. After death of animal, the susceptible organs (intestine and heart) were taken and examined grossly, then prepared for histopathological examinations. Results were revealed presence of severe congestion and bleeding of small intestine, further to other organs. Also the microscopic examinations declare presence of extensive necrosis and loss of epithelial cells of the villi, with infiltration of mononuclear cells in lamina properia, in addition to changes in other organs that took to be pathognomic for infection. .