Print ISSN: 1818-5746

Online ISSN: 2313-4429

Volume 14, Issue 1

Volume 14, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2015, Page 1-139

Detection of Giardiasis in apparently healthy cattle by using direct ELISA technique

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 1-3

The study was conducted to detect the Giardiasis in apparently healthy cattle by using direct ELISA technique. 85 fecal samples were collected and preserved in formalin saline 10% until testing. 76.4% (65 out of 85) of samples were revealed positive result of infection, and highest rate was recorded among young and males. The study revealed that there is highly distribution of Giardiasis among the apparently healthy cattle, and the calves and males are more infective. .

Isolation and diagnosis of the ectoparasites of house chickens in the province of Baghdad and study their effects on the blood

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 1-6

The study was conducted to detect the ectoparasite infestation in some chicken in different areas of Baghdad province by survey examining of (180) house breeding chickens of both sexes and of blood samples were also taken to identify the effect of the rate of infection on the some hematological changes. Results declared that the chicken were infested with one Lice species (Gonicotes gallinae), the whole rate 29.44%. The highest infestation rate was 36.6% in October and the lowest rate 20% was in June, and the highest infestation in females was 38.88% in July and the lowest 20% was in June; while the highest infestation in male was 44.44% in May and the lowest rate 16.66% in July. The results were show that the chicken were infested with one tick species (Argas persicus), in a whole rate of 17.22%. The highest infestation rate was 23.33% in May and the lowest rate 10% in August. The highest infestation rate in females was 35% in June and the lowest 4.76% in August, while the highest infestation in male was 25% in May and the lowest rate in June with no rate of infection. Chicken blood examinations declared the presence of anemia in blood sucking ectoparasites infected birds with significant decrease in total erythrocyte count concentration in chicken especially in severe infestation with soft ticks and mites. Results also showed increase in total white blood cells (Leukocytosis) with increase eosinophils in infected chickens with ticks and lice compared with non-infected chicken of control group. .

Study the effect of green tea extract on lipid profile in nitrate treated rabbits

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 4-9

The present study was conducted to determine the effected of using an aqueous extract of green tea in lipid profile in rabbits treated with sodium nitrate. To achieve this goal, 28 local adult female rabbits, were randomly divided into four equal groups in different cages. The first group has been arranged as control group and has been drenched the distilled water daily for 60 days. While the second group (T1) has been drenched aqueous extract of green tea at a dose of 200 mg / kg of body weight for a period of 60 days, while the third group (T2) has been drenched the aqueous extract of green tea at a dose of 200 mg / kg of body weight and at the same time they have been dosed with sodium nitrate dissolved in distilled water at a dose of 300 mg / kg of body weight, while the fourth group (T3) have been drenched with sodium nitrate dissolved in distilled water at a dose of 300 mg / kg of body weight for a period of 60 days. The results of lipid profile test show significant increase in total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein in a (T3) group, as well as there was a significant decrease in a (T1) group, with no significant differences between (T2) and control group. While in the triacylglycerol and very low density lipoprotein show significant incense in the T3 group compared with the rest of the groups. In concern to the high density lipoprotein concentration significant decrease in (T3) group and significant increase in the (T1) group, while the concentration of (T2) was no significant increase close to the concentration of the control group..

Measurements of some heavy metals in intestinal helminthes of two kinds of fishes in AL-Diwaniya province

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 7-13

Eight heavy metals were measured. They included Cadmium, Lead, Zinc, Nickel, Copper, Manganese, Mercury and Chromium by means of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, were measured these heavy metals for two kinds of intestinal worms (Cestode and Nematode) isolated from two types of fishes the year in four parts of Diwaniya (Diwaniya center, Shamiya, Hamza and Afaq). Cestodes isolated from the Barbus grypus registered high of mercury concentrations that reached 37.667 Microgram/ gram and 37.300 in Hamza and Diwaniya rivers, chrome concentrations was low in the tape worms 0.166 Microgram/ gram while nematodes, the concentrations was 0.157 Microgram/ gram in Shamiya river. cestoda and nematodais isolated from the intestines of Liza abu registered high concentrations in autumn, cestoda had the most of the concentrations of heavy metals, Mercury and nickel had high concentrations of (35.783, 25.840) Microgram/gram, copper and chrome had lower concentrations (1.881, 0.174) Microgram/gram in Hamza river, nematode registered high concentrations that reached 33.994 Microgram/ gram in mercury in Hamza river. .

Estimation the alkaline phosphates level in partial hepatectomy rabbits

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 10-14

Fifteen local breed rabbits of both sexes were used to evaluate the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level in the blood before and after partial hepatectomy. Blood sample were collected directly from the heart two times before surgery and consider as control, then one time in a week for eight wks. post-surgery. Partial hepatectomy were employed under general anesthesia, with highly aseptic techniques. The result shows that, the mean value of (ALP) of the control was (69.00 ± 5.33). During the two weeks after operation the level was seen within the normal. There was elevation of the (ALP) level at the 3rd wk. (73.53 ± 4.17) post operation, followed by decrease in the enzyme level through the period from the 4th wk. to the 7th wk. post operation, and the less (ALP) level reading was is in the 7th wk. (50.60 ± 4.97). Then the enzyme level in the 8th wk. was elevated after the 7th wk. to the 8th wk. to reaching near the normal level (57.13 ± 3.07). There was no significant change in the ALP value between the control reading and the post operation reading, but there was significant changes between the reading of after operation at (P<0.05). (P<0.05).

Skin histological study in local breed sheep) Ovis ovis)

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 14-19

The research was including histological study of the skin of local breed sheep (Awassi). The study carried out by using ten adult healthy skin rams specimens were taken during Autumn season from (12) different anatomical regions involving (ventral and dorsal surfaces of ear, neck, middle of back, scrotum, anterior and posterior ends of tail, medial and lateral surfaces of thoracic and pelvic limbs and muzzle).The histological results revealed that the epidermis was thin in most anatomical regions and composed of four secondary layers arranged from the inner to the outer larger as: stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum and stratum corneum. Results were found, presence of thick epidermis in muzzle and posterior end of the tail and it was characterized by presence of stratum lucidum beside the mentioned four layers. The mean thickness of the epidermis reaches 250.30 um in the muzzle region while the epidermis of the ventral surface of the ear was the least and reaches 45.25 um. In general, we observed that was a direct relation between the whole thickness of the epidermis and the thickness of the stratum corneum in all of the studied skin regions, the results revealed that the dermis of Awassi sheep composed of two essential layers: The superficial called papillary layer, and deep reticular layer. The histometric results refers to that the highest mean thickness (2520.70) um of the dermis was observed in the posterior region of tail, and least thickness(570.20) um in the skin of the ventral surface of ear. Two types of wool follicles in the dermis also noticed; the primary wool follicles, and the secondary wool follicles..

Prevalence of coccidiosis in local breed rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Baghdad province

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 15-21

The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Eimeria species in local breed rabbits. Eighty local breed rabbits of both sexes were examined. The results revealed, that (58) rabbits were infected with a total prevalence rate of (72.5%). The intestinal Eimeria were recorded the higher prevalence rate (55%) compared with the liver Eimeria (3.75%), and the mixed infection of intestinal and liver Eimeria (13.75%). The infection with oocyst of Eimeria perforans species display the highest prevalence rate (31.25%) followed by the E. piriformis, E. irresidua, E. media, E. flavescens, E. coecicola, E. exigua, E. intestinalis, E. magna and Eimeria stiedae with an prevalence rate of (27.5, 11.25, 17.5, 28.75, 13.75, 18.75, 23.75, 28.75 % and 17.5%) respectively. The mean and the SE of the length and the width of Eimeria species oocyst were found as: Eimeria stiedae (32.5±0.64) x (20.5±0.30) (µm), E. perforans (20.07±0.64) x (14.21±0.40), E. piriformis (24.38±0.41) x (16.54±0.29), E. irresidua (24.38±0.41) x (16.54±0.29), E. media (27.14±0.96) x (17.10±0.76), E. flavescens (30.30±0.59) x (19.93±0.46), E. coecicola (32.22±1.07) x (19.90±0.62), E. exigua (32.22±1.07) x (19.90±0.62), E. magna (33.78±0.62) x (20.52±0.58) and E. intestinalis (26.5±0.39) x (17.6±0.24) (µm). The mixed infection was most common with no significant differences appeared between males and females..

Detection and identification of Salmonella serotypes in fecal specimens from horses in Baghdad province

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 20-23

Perhaps this is the first study which has been done in Iraq concerning the prevalence of the Salmonella disease in horses (isolation and identification of salmonella from horses). Six hundred and twenty fecal samples were taken from different horse stables in Baghdad Province for 18 months. The results indicated that 34 animals were infected with percentage of 5.48% and the isolated serotypes were included (13) serotypes and the Salmonella anatum has been isolated mostly with the percentage of 38.2%. Four newly serotypes have been isolated which they are not mentioned in the literature and were included S.degania, S. chester, S. amsterdam and S. 40:z4,z24. Equestrian Club showed the highest ratio of infection. No statistical significance of gender on case account while it was significant that horses aged 6-10 years have the highest ratio..

Rapid detection of infectious bronchitis virus in broilers in Al-Diwaniya governorate by using Real-Time reverse transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 22-26

Infectious Bronchitis (IB) is currently one of the most important viral diseases in poultry flocks all over the world caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and it causes huge economic losses in poultry industry. Infectious bronchitis virus has many serotypes that do not confer cross protection against each other. This study was conducted to detect Infectious bronchitis virus in broilers chicken farms in Diwaniya governorate. Tracheal swab from 30 infected chicken flocks located in different areas of Diwaniya governorate were collected to make Rapid immunochromatography test for IBV by using Anigen Rapid IBV Antigen Test Kit and tissue samples were collected from flocks which showed positive for rapid test to make rRT-PCR. Twenty eight (93.33%) flocks were positive for IBV by rapid immunochromatography test. The molecular detection of IBV showed that all flocks (100%) were positive for IBV. In conclusion the IBV was the most important cause of respiratory diseases in this study. The real-Time RT-PCR was found very efficient and rapid in detection of IBV in infected chickens. .

Some molecular and sero – prevalence study of Anaplasma marginale in cattle in Wassit province

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 27-33

The study was designed to investigate the prevalence of bovine anaplasmosis among cattle from various areas in Wassit governorate. The investigation was performed on 184 blood samples collected from suspected cattle including (85) males and (99) females, aged from < 1year to > 2 years. Samples were collected during the period from October 2012 to April 2013, from AL-Kut, AL-hayy, AL-Bashair, AL-Moufaqia and AL-Noamania areas for investigations about the presence of antibodies against Anaplasma parasite by using indirect ELISA test and to determinate the species of genus Anaplasma by using RFLP-PCR technique. The suspected cattle suffering from fever (41°C), severe anemia, pale mucus membrane, progressive emaciation and drop in milk yield. The results of ELISA test showed that the rate of infection was 13.04 %; the rate of infection was different between age groups and was 8 %, 11.25 % and 16.45 % in ages < 1year, 1-2 year and 2 - 3 years respectively. The study revealed that females were given higher percent of infection 14.14 % than males 11.7 %, and there were no significant differences under p > 0.05 according to age groups and sex. The highest rate of infection was recorded in AL-Kut 17.14 % followed by AL-hayy 14 % and AL-Bashair 10 % and the lowest rate was recorded in AL-Noamania 8.33 % and AL-Moufaqia 5%. The study showed significant differences in incidence of disease between the studied districts and areas in Wassit governorate under p < 0.05. The most sensitive method for the diagnosis of Anaplasmosis was the method of polymerase chain reaction. The DNA extraction was performed only on 24 blood samples which positive for Anaplasma spp. by ELISA test. The extracted DNA from blood cells were analyzed by PCR and PCR-RFLP technique using primers derived from 16S rRNA gene and restriction endonuclease Bst1107I enzyme which can recognizes the sequence (GTATAC) in corresponding PCR product of A. marginale and cut it in the position 68 and 509, whereas the used restriction enzyme cannot cut the corresponding PCR product of other Aanaplasma spp., and the result was 20 out of 24 was positive for Aanaplasma spp. by PCR and 18 out of 20 was positive for A. marginale. A. marginale .

Rapid detection of Yersinia enterocolitica by using Real-Time PCR technique in some types of foods in Al-Qadisiya province

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 34-38

The present study was carried out for direct and rapid detection of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in some types of foods such as (raw milk, local sweet cheese and minced beef meat) exist in local different markets of Al-Qadisiya province. A total of 192 samples were collected randomly from markets of Al-Qadisiya province involved 79 raw milk samples, 58 local sweet cheese samples and 55 minced beef meat samples. Real-Time PCR technique based SYBER Green dye were used for detection of this bacteria by amplifying invasion locus protein (ail) gene which is found especially in Y. enterocolitica, The results revealed that positive samples for this (ail) gene were 49 samples out of 79 examined raw milk (62%), also 6 samples out of 58 samples observed in local sweet cheese (10.3%) and 49 samples out of 55 samples of minced beef meat (89%). A total of positive samples were 104 out of 192 examined samples, samples of minced beef meat recorded highly significant contamination (p<0.05) as compared samples of raw milk which occupied second rank in contamination with pathogen and then samples of local sweet cheese which recorded less degree of contamination. The Real-time PCR technique was very specific and efficient for detection Y. enterocolitica in variety foods, when compared with culture method which have many problems..

The effect of running at many speeds on some synovial fluid constituents in Iraqi Arabian horses

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 39-43

The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of running at different speeds (walk, trot, canter, and gallop) on the synovial fluid constituents which had been aspirated from the mid- carpal joint of each horse before and after running. The study was conducted on ten Iraqi Arabian horses in Arabic horses' center, Al-Qadisiya University. The synovial fluid samples were drawn aseptically and transferred directly to the clinical pathological laboratory examinations. Many physical and biochemical markers was studied, clarity, color, pH, viscosity, spontaneous clot formation, glucose (mg/dl), total protein (g/dl), alkaline phosphatase enzyme (IU/L) and WBC count. The results showed turbidity, dark yellow color, low pH, low viscosity and increase of spontaneous clot information in various degrees especially in case of canter and gallop. The glucose was decreased, while total protein, alkaline phosphatase and (WBCs) count was increased significantly at (p<0.05). .

Study the pathogenicity of Enterobacter cloacae in rats that isolated from diarrheatic buffalos calves in Babylon province

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 44-48

The study was aimed to isolate Enterobacter cloacae from feces of buffalo calves suffering from diarrhea and shows its pathogenicity in rats, 150 fecal samples were collected and cultured directly on MacConky agar then tested biochemically and with EPi 20 test to confirm diagnosis of Enterobacter cloacae. After that injected 4 groups of rat with (106,107 and 108 CFU/ml) respectively, while the fourth group not treated and consider as a control group, also extracted the cell wall from Enterobacter and used four groups of rat to injected with different concentration (150, 250 and 350 µ/ml) of extracted cell wall respectively, while fourth group consider as a control group. Results shows that 10 isolates of Enterobacter were obtained from stool and out of 10 isolates 7 isolates belong to Enterobacter cloacae. Bacterial isolation from internal organs shows very heavy isolation of bacteria in dose 108 CFU/ml as compared with other dose, histopathological changes in organs (liver and spleen) of animals which injected with live bacteria and extracted cell wall reveal severe changes as compared with control groups. .

Behavioral, hormonal, and testicular histological study to evaluate the effect of season on mating in local breed free housing tom cats in Al-Diwaniya city

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 49-53

The current study was conducted in the center of Al-Diwaniya city, Al-Qadisiya province in Iraq during a period of one year from (15/1/2012 to 15/1/2013) divided according to the sexual activity of males into three periods: the 1st period extended from mid of January to February, the 2nd period from February to November, and the 3rd period from November to mid of January. During these entire periods forty seven male local breed cats, (ten for each of the 1st and 3rd periods, while the other twenty seven were included in the 2nd period). All males were monitoring during the night and early morning to evaluate the behaviors, and then hunted to evaluate hormonal and histological changes in the male genital system. The results of behavioral study during the 1st period revealed that the male showed caterwaul sound, urination and following of the females with foreplay but without mating; in the 2nd period the same notes were observed with a huge desire to mating and obligating females for mating; the behaviors in the 3rd period were as the same of the 1st period. The ratios of studied periods during year were (4.16%, 75% and 20.84%) respectively. The results of the hormonal assay revealed that the testosterone levels were (0.42, 1.31 and 0.35 ng/ml) for the three periods of study respectively, while the LH concentrations were (1.31, 4.86 and 1.23 ng/ml) respectively. The histological study of testis showed that the seminiferous tubules characterized by very active vacuolated Sertoli cells filled with secretions with presence of all developmental stages of spermatogenesis, while the 1st and 3rd period characterized by thickening of connective tissue and peritubular tissue as well as not all developmental stages of spermatogenesis. .

RAPD-PCR based genetic variation of Candida albicans of animal and human origin

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 54-57

The objective of this work was to compare the usefulness of a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay by using OPA-18 oligonucleotide for identification and genetic relation detection among different Candida albicans strains isolated from animals and humans. Thirty isolates were obtained from human and animals and genotyped in previous study according to 25S rDNA into genotypes A,B,C and T, identification was documented by germ tubes production, chlamydospores production on Corn-Meal-Tween 80 agar, characteristic green color on Candida-CHROMagar media (CHROMagar microbiology, France), and the final identification was confirmed by HiCandida Identification kit (HiMedia, India), RAPD-PCR fingerprinting which was carried out by using OPA-18 oligonucleotide. Results indicate that RAPD fingerprinting obtained by OPA-18 primer was not useful for C. albicans identification and these patterns were consistent under same genotype, but there were differences among different genotypes of C. albicans. Also this study indicates that same genotypic patterns were genetically identical but there was different degree of genetic relation between different genotypes. RAPD-PCR using OPA-18 primer was a very specific and sensitive method for epidemiological study at molecular level because of easy, reliable and highly sensitive to subgenotyping of C. albicans but it was of less value in identification of this microorganism..

Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in renal infections patients in Al-Muthanna province/ Iraq

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 58-60

This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in hemodialysis patients with chronic renal failure and patients with urinary tract inflammation by using On site IgG/ IgM and ELISA IgM from November 2012 to February 2013. Anti-IgG and IgM T. gondii antibodies positivity were found to be 13.04% and 1.09% respectively by using On Site IgG, while there were no IgM antibodies by using ELISA. The significant effect of age, sex and type of infection wasn’t observed in proportion rate, highest rates was in 1-10 years old group, while lowest at 31-40 years and ≥51years while anti IgM antibodies found only in 21-30 years old. Proportion rates of IgG in female more than in males which were 13.9% and 13.04% respectively, while the rates of IgM2.2 in male only. Proportion rates of IgG in urinary tract inflammations patients more than in renal failure patients who were 14.6% and 11.4% respectively, while the rates of IgM 2.1% in urinary tract inflammations patients only 2.1%.

A comparison of gravid uterine parameters of local breed ewes between single and twin pregnancies in different gestational stages

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 61-64

The study was carried out from the period of September 2012 to March 2013 in An Najaf province. Thirty gravid uteri (15 single and 15 twins) were collected from An Najaf and Al- Kufa slaughter houses. The results showed that in single pregnancies the mean of measurements of fetal weight, uterus weight, allantoic fluid and numbers of cotyledon in first trimester were 26.75 gm, 331.75 gm, 250.25 ml and 74.5 respectively. In second trimester it were 226 gm, 1002.66 gm, 545 ml and 90.75, while in third trimester it were reach 815 gm, 2168 gm, 621.42 ml and 89.75 respectively. In twin pregnancies the mean of measurements of fetal weight, uterus weight, allantoic fluid and numbers of cotyledon in first trimester were 13.5 gm 432.25 gm, 275.5 ml and 105.25 respectively. In second trimester it were 105 gm, 1316.5 gm, 786 ml and 100, while in third trimester it were reach 450 gm, 3470 gm, 1158 ml and 129 respectively.

The effect of pregnancy and lactation on blood biochemical and immunological values in ewes after enterotoxaemia vaccination

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 65-68

The current study was conducted on sixteen ewes at the average age of 2years ±1.2month and the average weight of 33.01±2.4 kg. Animals were divided into two groups: Group A, eight pregnant ewes, and Group B, eight lactating ewes. The group A were subdivided into two groups: pregnant group (P) including 4 ewes and control group (C) including 4 ewes non-pregnant, also group B were subdivided into two groups: lactating group (L) and control group (C) non lactating. The ewes were vaccinated against enterotoxaemia before parturition (about one month). The blood samples were withdrawn from group (A) before one week from parturition and one week after parturition in group B. IgG and IgM proteins concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion plate. Plasma levels of urea, ALT, GGT, K and creatinine were determined using Reflatron apparatus. The results revealed non-significant differences in values of urea between pregnant (0.59±0.05) and control group (0.81±0.15), as well as, there were no significant differences (P>0.05) between pregnant group (0.59±0.05) and lactating group (0.5±0). The values of K+, GGT and ALT didn't appear any significant differences (P>0.05) between pregnant group and control group, while there was significant difference (P≤ 0.05) between levels of K +, GGT and ALT of pregnant group (7.58 ± 1.7, 4.26 ± 0.61 and 55.93 ± 0.7) and lactating group (5.91 ± 0.47, 9.61 ± 0.81 and 63.18 ± 0.72) respectively. The levels of bilirubin in pregnant group (3.05 ± 0.12) appear significant differences (P≤ 0.05) as compared with control group (0.74 ± 0.03), as well as no significant difference between pregnant and lactating group (3.05 ± 0.12 and 3.05 ± 0.12) respectively. Serum IgG and IgM concentrations in pregnant was significantly increased (695.073±0.64mg/dl, 786.005±0.46mg/dl) respectively while in lactating group was (541.013±0.32mg/dl, 786.005±0.46mg/dl) respectively. (365.045 ± 0.31mg/dl)

Hematological and biochemical changes following Ivermectin treatment in mange infested goats

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 69-74

The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical features of mange and to evaluate the effectiveness of Ivermectin in treatment of affected goats referring to hematological and biochemical aspects. For this purposes local 180 female goats (does) kept in Farm Animal-College of Veterinary Medicine-Baghdad University were examined. Their ages were (1-2) years and had a mean average weight of (27.50 ± 2.25) kg. Thirty-six goats out of 180 were infested with mange. Other 36 was chosen from the herd and regarded as a control group. The infested group received Ivermectin 1% injected by subcutaneous route at a dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg B.W., in a single dose, while the control group received none. Blood samples were collected aseptically via jugular vein puncture at zero time, as well as 28 days post-Ivermectin treatment. Results indicated that the causative agent was Sarcoptis scabiei var caprae with a percent of 20% which were noticed on the muzzle, ears, neck, face, shoulder and back. White blood cells (WBCs) were increased in the untreated goats compared with the treated goats after 28 days of the experiment. Red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb) content and packed cells volume (PCV) increased significantly (p< 0.05) at four weeks after the commencement of treatment. Total protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin and glucose were significantly decreased (p< 0.05) in untreated group compared with treatment and control groups. In conclusion, the treatment goats were much more active and had gone back to feed with the absence of lesion after 28 days post-treatment beside retaining the hematological and biochemical parameters to nearly normal values..

Prevalence of Rota virus, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Cryptosporidium spp. in feces of buffalo in Babil governorate

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 75-79

The aim of present study to determine the prevalence of rotavirus, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Cryptosporidium spp. in feces of buffalo in Babil governorate. Fecal samples were collected from (30 male, 50 female and 50 calves) of buffalo during the period of October 2013-March 2014. The percentage of infection with Rota virus was 10% in male, 8% in female and 12% in calves. The rate of isolation of E.coli O157:H7 was 10% in male, 8% female and 2% in exanimated calves. The oocystes of Cryptosporidium spp. was identified in feces of 13.3% of male, 12% of female and in 6% of calves. As a result of this study it can be concluded that buffalo serve as good reservoirs of most important enteropathogens and consider a potential source of infection to both domestic animals and human..

Comparative anatomical and histological study of the esophagus of local adult male and female homing pigeon (Columba livia domestica)

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 80-87

The purpose of this study was to unveil the comparison of the macroscopic and microscopic features of the esophagus in males and females homing pigeons, 10 males and 10 females of health adult local homing pigeons of all anatomical and histological studies, the present study showed that the mean total length of the esophagus of male was longer than that of female, mean length, diameter of lumen of cervical esophagus was greater than that of thoracic esophagus in each sex. The esophageal wall was composed of the four tunicae (mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and adventitia). Mucosa consist of epithelium formed by non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, lamina propria was a loose connective tissue contain mucous glands, these glands were less developed in cervical esophagus than that in thoracic esophagus of each sex and muscularis mucosa was a thick layer of longitudinal bundler of smooth muscles, mean thickness of mucosa in male was thicker than that in female, and longitudinal folds in the cervical esophagus were great deep than that in the thoracic esophagus of each sex. Submucosa consist of thin layer of loose connective tissue, mean thickness of submucosa in male was thicker than that in female, means the thickness of mucosa and submucosa in cervical esophagus were thicker than that in thoracic esophagus of each sex. Muscular is composed of a circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layer, mean thickness of muscularis in male was thicker than that in female and mean it thickness in thoracic esophagus was thicker than that in cervical esophagus of each sex. Adventitia made up of loose connective tissue with blood vessels, mean thickness of adventitia in male was more than that in female and in cervical esophagus was more than that in thoracic esophagus of each sex. .

Effects of sub lethal doses of endosulfan on histopathological and biochemical parameters of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 88-94

The study aim to determine the LD50 of endosulfan in fishes. Sixty (60) fishes of common carp 140-160 gm. body weight were utilized. The fishes were adapted and acclimated to the laboratory conditions in the college of Veterinary Medicine, AL-Qassim Green University for 2 days before starting of the experiment, then were exposed to (10 mg/L, 5mg/L, 3mg/L, 2mg/L, 1mg/L) of endosulfan for 24 hours. Results were demonstrated that the LD50 of endosulfan in fish was (2.28mg/L). The ALT and AST Liver enzymes were show significant elevation compare with control. Kidney sections show inflammatory cells infiltration particularly macrophage and neutrophils around the tubules with necrotic area in addition to vacuolar degeneration of epithelial lining cells of renal tubules. Histological sections of liver show cellular hypertrophy, swelling, and apoptosis of hepatic cells, and at the same time hepatocytes lost their normal polygonal structure in addition to necrosis of hepatocytes. .

Laparoscopic colotomy suture using clips and Connell techniques in goats: A comparative study

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 95-103

The aim of the study was to investigate and evaluate the colotomy closure via laparoscopic device using clips and Connell mattress suture technique. Sixteen adult female healthy local breed goats were used. They were divided randomly into two equal groups, Connell suture technique and clips mattress groups. The operations were done under the effect of general anesthesia using IM injection of xylazine 2% (0.05 mg/kg BW) and ketamine 5% (3mg/ kg BW) mixture. Under aseptic technique colotomy were done laparoscopically, the colotomy incision was closed by connell suture pattern in connell's group using 2/0 polygalactin 910 suture material, and by clips technique in clips group using 10 Medium- Large titanium legating clips. Each group was divided into two equal subgroups depended on follow up of histopathological examination at a periods of 7 and 21 days post- surgery. The results of clinical examination revealed that the activity and appetite of animals were return early to the normal level, also the physical findings returned to the normal level value with a short time after operation in both groups. The histopathological findings of two groups appeared that there was an inflammatory phase at a period of 7 days post operation, but the granulation tissue and collagen fiber formation was more prominent in connell's group compared with clips group, while at the 21 days post operation in both groups revealed that a granulation tissue in the incision site which covered by epithelial layer with thick fibrous connective tissue and presence of myofibroblast at the incision site. This indicated that the wound was in a mature phase which was clear in connell's group than in the clips group..

Study the association between Enterobius vermicularis infection and enuresis among children in Al-Najaf city

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 104-108

Enterobius vermicularis or pinworms infection is one of the most prevalent worms found in children worldwide, nocturnal enuresis is an involuntary and un desirable bedwetting beyond age of anticipated bladder control. There is a possible association between certain infection and the propensity to develop nocturnal enuresis including intestinal helminthes infection. Prospective study included (285) randomly selected children aged range (3-14) years from both sex. The children were examined for E. vermicularis infection by adhesive cellotape anal swap. Nocturnal enuresis rates were investigated before and after mebendazole treatment in children with E. vermicularis to search for the association between E. vermicularis infection and enuresis. The overall infection infection rate reported in this study was 37.89% (108/285) divided as 53.70% infection rate for females and 46.29%for males, there are no significant differences between male and female infection. The results showed that E. vermicularis is one of the most frequent intestinal helminthes with nocturnal enuresis among children in Al-Najaf city. From the results, the percentage of children who had entrobiasis and enuresis before treatment mebendazole drug was 26.66%, whereas the percentage after treatment was 14.03%.%14.03.

Effect of Punica granatum rinds ethanolic extract on healing of fungated wounds in rabbits

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 109-117

Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is an ancient fruit used in various systems of medicine for a variety of ailments. The study has been designed to investigate the role of ethanolic extract of rinds of Punica granatum as antimicrobial on 6 types of bacteria includes; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staph aureus, E.coli, Streptococcus spp. and Klebsiella pneumonia and antifungal activity on 4 types of fungi includes; Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigates and Aspergillus valvas. Also the study build to assessment the ability of rinds ethanolic extract of Punica granatum to reduced the oxidative intention as a result of fungal infection and to accelerate the wound healing in normal and wound model infected with fungi using local rabbits as experimental animals. To achieve this goal 30 adults rabbits were used and divided into three groups, one as control group and the others as treated groups. Two wounds models via incision were make and infected with fungi. The first infected group was treated with ethanolic extract of Punica granatum and the second group treated with 0.5 g ointment of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum. The results of antimicrobial assessment exhibited significant antibacterial and antifungal activity against almost all tested bacteria and fungi, and the used of rinds ethanolic extract of Punica granatum for each treated groups (300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) also showed significant (P<0.05) improvement in percentage of wounds contraction and healing. In addition the oxidative stress was assessed by estimating the serum levels of antioxidant enzymes: malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and SOD. Also the results shows that the treatment with ethanolic extract of rind of Punica granatum markedly prevented oxidative stress by increasing of catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and decreasing the level of MDA and SOD. In conclusion the study revealed that use of rinds ethanolic extract of Punica granatum as a lotion and ointment improve the wounds healing properties..

Histomorphological and morphometrical comparative study of the kidney between Quail (Conturnix coturni) and Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca) according to their environment type

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 118-126

The present work was designed to investigate the morphometrical and histological differences in kidneys of two species (Quail and Green-winged Teal) belong to different orders varied in their environments. The study was performed on ten healthy male (five birds for each species). After the kidneys were removed the samples were taken. Three stains were used (H&E, PAS, and Van-Gieson). The result revealed that the kidneys in both birds were coated by a thin capsule. The thickness of capsule was higher significant in Green-winged Teal than in Quail. There was no clear delineation of cortical and medullary regions as there was in the mammalian kidney. The result showed the high significant of number of glomerulus in Green-winged Teal than in Quail, also the height of epithelial cells and of proximal convoluted tubules diameters were high significantly in Green-winged Teal. The height of epithelium cells and distal convoluted tubules diameters were significantly high in Green-winged Teal than in Quail. The study was examined and compared the morphometric and histomorphologic of the kidney in the two species according to their environment which live in it.

Detection of hemolysin virulence factor gene of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) isolated from feces of infected sheep by using Polymerase Chain Reaction Technique

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 127-131

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are the most important recently emerged group of food-borne pathogens. It can cause severe gastrointestinal disease, including fatal infections, and is being detected more frequently worldwide. In this study the Polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) were used for detection of hemolysin toxin gene (hlyA) as virulence factor producing by Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) isolated from diarrheic sheep. The PCR primers for hlyA gene were designed according to a program from NCBI-Genbank published sequence (Genbank code: X94129.1). Fifty fecal samples were collected from sheep suffering from diarrhea, (32) isolates (64%) of Escherichia coli were detected and diagnosed by routine laboratory tests. The results were shown only (13) positive isolates in PCR technique for detection of hemolysin toxin gene at (40.62%) which present as Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli out of (32) E. coli. In conclusion, hemolysin toxin gene (hlyA) is important virulence factor of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infected sheep and using PCR was appeared very sensitive and highly specific assay serve as suitable molecular diagnostic tool for detection Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli producing hemolysin toxin..

Evaluation the clinical effects of neuroleptanalgesia (Remifentanil-Acepromazine, Remifentanil-Xylazine, and Remifentanil-Midazolam) during intubation and some minor surgical operations in dogs

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 132-139

The present study intends to evaluate and compare the clinical effects of neuroleptanalgesia induced by using one of the sedative-opioid or tranquilizer-opioid (neuroleptanalgesia) combinations during intubation and some minor surgical operations in dogs. Twenty seven apparently healthy dogs weighing from (15-20 kg) and aged (2-4 years) were divided into three groups, all animals were premedicated with atropine (0.03 mg/kg BW) IM, after 15 minutes Neuroleptanalgesia induced as following: Group 1, giving Acepromazine 1mg/kg BW IM and remifentanil 0.5 μg/kg BW IV. Group 2, giving Xylazine 2mg/kg BW IM and remifentanil 0.5 μg/kg BW IV. Group 3, giving Midazolam 0.2mg/kg BW IM and remifentanil 0.5 μg/kg BW IV), in 10 minutes interval respectively in all groups. The following parameters were used for evaluation during the state of (neuroleptanalgesia), eye reflexes, duration and degree of surgical analgesia, degree of sedation, muscle relaxation, respiratory rate, rectal body temperature, and heart rate and rhythm. The results of the study was characterized by good sedation with minor change in heart and respiratory rates and body temperature with excellent analgesia and muscle relaxation quite enough to performed intubation, docking and declawing in groups one and two and less in quality in third group. Neuroleptanalgesia programs in all groups are good for reduce fear and induce restraint necessary for diagnostic procedures, physical examination or some minor surgical operations..