Print ISSN: 1818-5746

Online ISSN: 2313-4429

Volume 14, Issue 2

Volume 14, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2015, Page 1-119


Identification of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry products by Real-Time PCR in Al-Muthanna province

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 1-6

The study was undertaken due to the potential contribution of poultry products is less well known in Iraq. In this study, Campylobacter jejuni identified by application SYBR green based Real-Time PCR technique by amplification the specific hipo gene in (96) chicken tissue samples. The results show no significant difference in detection rates between fresh (77.8%) and frozen (83.3%) poultry tissue samples. In freshly slaughtered poultry samples, the liver detection rate (93.75 %) was higher than skin (62.5%) and meat (75%) while in frozen poultry samples, the detection rate was higher in meat (93.75 %) than skin (87.5%) and liver (68.75%). In conclusion the study showed high contamination rates of poultry with Campylobacter jejuni in retail markets and the direct Real-Time PCR is suitable assay for screening poultry products and identification of Campylobacter jejuni pathogen. Campylobacter jejuni.

Isolation and identification of some ecto and endoparasites on native chickens in Diyala province

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 1-5

The study was conducted in several areas of Diyala province for the period of December 2012 to March of the 2013. A number of 107 native chickens from different areas of the province included (Baquba, Shahraban, Khan Bani Saad, and Canaan) were examined to investigate the ecto and endo-parasites on the scattered private chickens farms in the province. The total rate of infection was 41.18%. The highest rate of ectoparasites infestation in chickens was 22.42% compared to internal parasites which reached to 17.75%. The tapeworms recorded rate 13.08%, while the filamentous nematodes reached lower rate of 4.67%. One genus of filamentous nematodes and one genus of tapeworm that infect the digestive tract of poultry and two genera of chewing lice which parasitic on the chicken skin and feathers were diagnosed in a rate of (13.08, 4.67, 22.42)% respectively, and the highest rate where in Baquba 51.72%, followed by Shahraban and Canaan rate of (38.88, 36)% respectively, while the lowest rate in Bani Saad 34.28%. The study showed the presence of four types of parasites which are Cotugina spp. at a rate of 12.14 % and Heterakis gallinarum in rate of 4.67 %, while the genus Menacanthus stramines recorded a rate 18.64%. However, the ratios in the external parasites of the genus Campanulotes bidentatus comopare 4.67% from the total domestic chickens infested in the province with significant differences under the level of significance p <0.05. p<0.05 .

Study of histopathological changes in white male rats experimentally infected by Toxoplasma gondii

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 6-11

Toxoplasma gondii is protozoan parasite infected different types of tissues of warm blooded animals and caused toxoplasmosis infection. Felidae is considered the final host while the rodent, reptiles, birds and mammals including human are the intermediate host. This study was aimed to isolate T. gondii from aborted placenta of infected women and experimentally infection of male rats and follow up the histopathological changes that produced in different organs such as brain, heart, liver and testes also we diagnosed the parasite in tissue of this organs. Thirty male rats Rattus norvegicus (aged (60-70) days averaged weight (200-250gm) used in this study, placed in clean plastic cages and fed on laboratory diet and drinking water), intra-peritoneal infected with suspension of parasite of aborted placenta which prepared by cutting, grinding, filtering and centrifuged of placenta sample. After 8 weeks of infection the rats were scarified and the organs brain, heart, liver and testes were fixed in 10% formalin for histological processing. The parasite were noticed and different histopathological changes such as presence of edema and proliferation of astrocytes in brain, while in liver the necrosis of hepatocytes and congestion of central vein and infiltration of inflammatory cells. In heart there were necrosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells. In testes there were congestion between the seminiferous tubules and inhibition of spermatogenesis and vaculation of spermatogonia. This study was recorded the possibility of isolation of T.gondii, noticed the parasite and follow up the histopathological changes in male rats. .

Total protein and some minerals in late stage of gestation and early lactation in dairy cows

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 7-10

The study was conducted on 50 dairy crossbred pregnant cows from January until May 2014, for evaluating the total protein and some minerals parameters. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein three times; at one week pre parturition, at parturition, and at a week after parturition, for measurement of serum total protein, calcium, and phosphorus, magnesium and iron concentrations. The results were indicated a significant (P˂0.05) decreases of total protein, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron concentrations in calving period compared to pre calving and post calving periods. In conclusion, there was a significant decrease in minerals concentration (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron) during pregnancy and lactation periods..

Effect of season on blood minerals in Iraqi bull buffalo

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 11-14

The present study was conducted to investigate some aspects of the reproductive system in Iraqi bull buffaloes and the effects of seasonal changes on physiological parameters. 96 blood samples of buffalo’s bull were collected from the slaughter house during August 2013 to August 2014. Blood samples were analyzed to study the effect of season on the blood minerals during the different seasons of the year. The results of the minerals assays showed that there were no significant differences for (calcium, phosphorus, and sodium) which increased in autumn and winter, decreased in spring and summer. The calcium recorded (2.39, 2.41, 2.22, 2.51) m.Mol/L, the phosphorus (2.19, 2.18, 1.99, 1.92) m.Mol / L, and the sodium (140.78, 140.66, 140.33, 139.16) m.Mol / L in autumn, winter, spring, and summer respectively, while the results showed significant differences (p <0.05) of copper reading during the different seasons which recorded a highest level in autumn and winter (68.63, 67.7, 64.15, 54.56) m.Mol / L. (68.63 ,67.7 , 64.15 ,(54.56 m.Mol/L .

Effect of usage fermented mares milk on healing of gastric ulcer induced by aspirin in Albino rats

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 12-17

This study was conducted in the animal houses of veterinary medicine college/AL-Qadisiya university during the period from 27-2-2014 to 30-3-2014, to study the effect of using fermented mares milk on the healing of gastric ulcer that induced by aspirin in albino rats. A total of 56 albino female rats were used in this study the rats were divided randomly in to four groups each group containing 14 rats; Negative control group (C) that was fed only basal diet and distilled water. Positive control group (T1) that induced gastric ulcer by aspirin (100mg/kg B.W) for 7 days. Second treated group (T2) that induced gastric ulcer by aspirin for 7days then was orally treated with fermented mares milk (10ml/kg B.W) for 21days.The third treated group (T3) that induced gastric ulcer by aspirin then was orally treated with ranitidine 50mg/kg B.W) for 21days. The result of the current study showed that the aspirin had a significantly effect (p<0.05) on ulcer parameters, formation many ulcers in gastric mucosa increased ulcer score and ulcer index and decrease the pH of gastric juice. The result also showed that fermented mares milk significantly (P<0.05) influenced the ulcer parameter as compared to the aspirin group and their values were closely with values of the control group and the ranitidine group, According to the result we concluded that fermented mares milk played an important role in healing of gastric ulcer as in ranitidine. .

Ultrasonographic investigation of early embryonic death in mares

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 15-18

The aim of the study was to characterize clinical symptoms for an impending embryonic death using Real-Time ultrasound technique. The present study was conducted in two different farms, including (257) foaling mares (Arabian, Thoroughbred and Cross breed) in Al-laith equine herd and Equestrian club in Al-Ameria, 4-14 years old foaling mares which are situated in areas around Baghdad and extended one calendar from July 2011 to July 2012. These mares were examined for pregnancy diagnosis by using trans-rectal ultrasonography a 5MHz linear-array transducer between days 10 and 60 after breeding (last breeding day=day 0). The incidence of early embryonic death (EED) in this study occurred most frequently ≤ day 40 (6/ 13, 46.2%), while low occurrence of early embryonic loss was during the period from 41-50 day and 51-60 day (2/13,15%), (5/13,38.45) respectively as the total number of mares suffered from EED were (13) mares. The results of this study showed a significant differences (P<0.05) between the percentage of early embryonic death and gestation period through 10-60 days. Sonographic characteristics of an impending embryonic death were as follows: the size of conceptus was underdeveloped, the endometrium become heterogenic and estrous-like. A reduced volume of conceptual fluid and disorganization of the conceptual membrane were the most important criteria after embryonic death. In conclusion, that B-mode ultrasound is a useful and essential method to diagnose and predict embryonic mortality in mares. .

Evaluation the protective role of fermented mares milk in alleviate the effects of oxidative stress induced by lead acetate in albino rats

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 18-24

This study was carried out at college of veterinary medicine /AL-Qadisiya university during the period from 27-2-2014 to 30-3-2014 to evaluate the role of fermented mares milk in alleviate the effect of oxidative stress induced by lead acetate. A total of (40) male albino rats were used in this study, the rats were divided randomly into four groups including (10 rats per each group) as following: Control group (C) fed only standard diet and water for drinking, first treatment group (T1) fed the same diet and deionized distilled water intoxicated with (1000 ppm) lead acetate, second treatment group (T2) fed the same diet and deionized distilled water intoxicated with (1000ppm) lead acetate, and orally received fermented mares milk (10 ml /kg B.W) by gavage, third treatment group (T3) fed the same diet and deionized distilled water intoxicated with (1000 ppm) lead acetate and orally received (50 mg / kg B.W) Ca-EDTA by gavage. The results showed that intoxicated with lead acetate causes a significant (P<0.05) increase in activity of (AST, ALT and ALP) enzymes. Also the result revealed that a significant (P<0.05) decrease in activity of super dismutase (SOD) enzyme and a significant (P<0.05) increase in concentration of serum malondialdehyd (MDA) in the blood serum group. On the other hand the result showed that giving fermented mares milk or EDTA with lead acetate contribute in improvement of previous parameters as compared to (T1) and closely to control group. According to the results obtained in the present study, it could be concluded that exposed to lead acetate can be causes disturbance in physiological functions and induced oxidative stress besides approved the protective role of fermented mares milk in liver protection..

Acute phase proteins in calves naturally infected with cryptosporidium

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 19-22

Infectious diarrhea remains one of the most important health challenges in dairy industries during the first four weeks of life, with Cryptosporidium infection as one of the main causes of this diarrhea. This study aimed to evaluate blood concentration of some acute phase proteins in calves naturally infected with Cryptosporidium. Ninety-six, 1 day to 4 week-old Holstein calves were allotted into control group (G1 n=48 healthy calves) and calves infected with Cryptosporidium (G2 n=48). Blood and fecal samples were collected from each calf at the same day. Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to estimate serum levels of haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), while gel electrophoresis was used to determine serum level of fibrinogen. Serum SAA, Hp, and fibrinogen significantly increased in infected calves, whereas there was no significant difference in serum level of TNFα between the two groups..

Comparative phenotypic and genotypic study of MSSA and MRSA wound infections in Babylon

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 23-33

The study aim to evaluate and compare phenotypic and genotypic features of methicillin sensitive (MSSA), and methicillin resistance (MRSA) S. aureus isolates. Out of 113 infected wound swabs from outpatient clinic in Babylon/Iraq, only (31) (27.43%) S. aureus isolates were isolated by selective medium, and cefoxitine disk diffusion was used to differentiate MSSA from MRSA in order to study the comparative phenotypic and genotypic features. Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was used also. The PCR assay was used for direct detection of methicillin (mec A) and vancomycin (van A) antibiotics resistance gene in S. aureus isolates. Results showed that (17) out of (31) isolates were MRSA, fifteen of them harbor Mec A gene. While only (14) out of (31) isolates were MSSA, two of them harbor the Mec A gene, and there was no single vancomycin resistance in all isolates. Two (2) MRSA isolates have intermediate vancomycin susceptibility (MIC 8-16μg/ml) and just two (2) isolates having Van A gene. MRSA nearly resist all β lactam, cloxacillin, gentamycin and ciprofloxacin, while the MSSA isolates were sensitive for the commonly used antibiotic with high resistant rate to penicillin, amoxicillin and amoxicillin clavulante. In conclusion, MRSA has become a major public health problem with decreased susceptibility to antibiotics that necessate the availability of highly sensitive diagnostic test like PCR with routine laboratory techniques (based on the detection of the mec A gene) (or cefoxitine disc diffusion method) to differentiate MSSA from MRSA and the availability of the highly active antibiotic in order to control their spreads as early as possible. .

The biochemical and histological effects of uranyl acetate in male New Zealand rabbits

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 25-30

The study aimed to demonstrate the effects of two doses (30 and 40 mgkg) of aqueous uranium acetate on the blood biochemical criteria and histological changes in male New Zealand rabbits. Eighteen (18) rabbits divided into three equal groups (control, T1, T2) were daily gavaged for 21 days. Control group: given 1 ml kg BW of normal saline 0.9%. The first and the second treated groups were treated with 30 mg kg, and 40 mgkg BW of the aqueous uranium acetate respectively. Results show presence of a significant increase (P<0.05) in the blood level of urea, creatinine, triglycerides (TG), cholesterol, GOT and blood glucose of both treated groups in compare with control, also show a significant decrease in blood total protein of both treated groups compare with control. Histologically the kidney of treated animals showed existence conglomerate and a contraction in the glomerulus and shedding of the endothelium of Bowman's capsule, congestion and expansion of the urinary tubules, cellular death, and damage to the installation of the total tissue. In the liver there were marked damage of the radiated installation of liver, liver cellular death, congestion and endothelium shedding of the central vein, and presence of RBCs in the dilated sinusoids. In conclusion, taking of uranyl acetate in high concentrations lead to histopathological changes in body tissue, and to significant changes in blood biochemical criteria with serious effects on the body..

Study of toxoplasmosis distribution rate in pregnant women and its relation with abortion and adenosine deaminase enzyme activity in Najaf province

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 31-36

The study aim to determine the activity of the adenosine deaminase enzyme in pregnant women infected by toxoplasmosis. Fifty one (51) blood serum of pregnant infected women aged 18 to 44 years and (30) blood serum of non-infected pregnant women. Determination of globulin IgM and adenosine deaminase enzyme activity as well as determination the highest months rate were done. Results were showed increase the activity of adenosine deaminase in 180 and 1160 potency rate ( 17.75±67.05) (9.04 ±77.1) respectively while the effective rate was (87.99±14.61) (8.08 ±96.61) in 1320 and 1640 respectively compared with non infected pregnant women (0.51 ±11.5). The severity of toxoplasmosis was appear high in cold and warm months of the years (December, February, March, April) where the highest rates registered at March, and the lowest rate at August. In conclusion the adenosine deaminase enzyme can be used for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women..

Molecular and serological detection of T. gondii in sheep in Wasit province

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 34-42

The present study was conducted during the period from October 2013 to May 2014 in Wasit province to detect the infection of T. gondii in sheep using molecular and serological methods. Three hundred and five samples (300 blood samples and 5 placentas) were collected from suspected sheep. The serum samples were separated and examined by latex ʺagglutination testʺ to detect Toxoplasmosis serologically. Then 100 blood samples and 5 placental tissue samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to detect the infection molecularly. The Serological results showed that 33.33% were positive (31.33% with chronic infection and 2% with acute infection). It was noted that the highest rate of infection was among the ages which is equal to or more than 3 years (≥3 years), reaching 45.55%, with significant difference (P≤0.05) between these ages. The present study indicated a lack of months effect on the distribution of parasite infection rates where these different months recorded relatively close rate ranged between 31.4% -35.97% with no significant difference (P<0.05). Regarding to polymerase chain reaction test, when a fragment of 399bp was amplified from B1 gene, the result showed that 4% of blood samples and 80% of placental tissue samples were positive to this test. In conclusion the Toxoplasma infection in sheep is relatively high in Wasit province. .

Molecular detection of toxoplasmosis in biting lice (Menacanthus stramineus) on naturally infected chickens using polymerase chain reaction

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 37-40

The study aim to prove the role of biting lice Menacanthu stramineusto in transfer of Toxoplasma gondii to the chickens by using PCR technique. Thirty local chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) more than 4 months age, have dense lice infestations were collected from the local markets of AL-Diwaniya city. Five ml of blood were collected from each bird, and all samples were tested by serological test using latex agglutination test to detect Toxoplasma gondii parasite. Results were indicate (17) 56.66% positive samples of Toxoplasma gondii parasite, and the highest proportion were recorded at the titer of 1/80 (41.17%) and the lowest at 1/40, and 1/640 (5.88% for each one). Result of conventional PCR reveals 12 (54.54%) positive out of 22 examined lice samples in which presence of the specific B1(399bp) gene of T. gondii were registered in lice tissue indicating the presence of parasite. In conclusion the study proves the presence of Toxoplasma parasite in lice tissue, and the ability of the lice to transmit the parasite within his body parts..

Effect of using licorice powder (Glycyrrhiza Glabra) supplement- ed at flushing up in some physiological (Hematological) traits of maiden Awassi ewe lambs

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 41-46

The study was conducted to find out the effect of licorice powder (Glycyrrhiza Glabra) supplemented at premating flushing up and during early pregnancy of Awassi ewe lambs in some physiological traits (Hematological). It was carried out in Farm Animal-Agricultural Research Station/Ministry of Agriculture, and lasted from 20th December 2011 up to 15th May 2012. Twenty one ewe lambs included in this study at age of 10-12 month, weighing 45-50 kg’s and were randomly divided equally into three groups; control and two treated groups. First treated group were drenched daily with (1 gm) of licorice powder per head, second treated group were drenched with(2 gm) of licorice powder per head /daily, also concentrate diet was given to all animals with a range of 1kg/head and all animals were allowed to graze freely, feeding regime was continued up to end of first period of gestation, also preventive and clinical test were considered. Blood samples were taken and serum samples were obtained to find out the hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume rate, red and white blood cell counts, total serum protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were conducted also. The result of this study revealed that there was significant differences (p<0.05) and remarkable positive effect between treated and untreated groups for some physiological parameters (Haematological). Therefore, it could be concluded from this study that using of the licorice powder (Glycyrrhiza Glabra) in nutrition (Flushing up) at pre-mating and during early pregnancy of ewe lambs it could play an important role in improving animal health, blood picture when compared with ewe lambs that doesn't supplement with licorice in their feeding. .

Evaluation of the pH in subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) as diagnostic tool in crossbreed dairy cows

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 43-46

The objective of this study was to find the relationship of acidity (pH) among following constituents: ruminal fluid, blood, milk, and feces, and evaluating it as an indicator and diagnostic tool for this disease in crossbreed dairy cows in Al-Diwaniyah province. A randomized selection of crossbreed dairy cows in Al-Diwaniyah province in two seasons Winter and Autumn (Sep 2013 – Feb 2014), about 427 total heads, 90 as SARA group and 50 as control. Our results of mean values of pH in the subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) group in the ruminal fluid, milk, blood, and fecal samples were (5.22), (6.70), (7.0), and (5.56) respectively, which were different and lowest from the control group. The data obtained were processed statistically and compared together to detect the presence of significance revealed that pH of ruminal fluids and pH of fecal samples took the significant differences between groups (p≤0.05). While there were no significant difference in the milk and blood pH between the control and SARA sets (p≥0.05). Moreover, the study revealed that pH levels were in both rumenocentesis and stomach tubation sets did not have any significant difference (P ≥ 0.05). According to the results, which were confident, can be considering the pH is an important diagnostic tool to identify the SARA in dairy cows. .

Histomorphological developmental study of the adrenal gland of the local rabbit at one and fifteen days age

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 47-54

The adrenal glands are complex endocrine glands regulating multiple physiological processes in the animal body. This study was carried out on the adrenal glands during two postnatal periods of local rabbit. Twelve animals regardless of the sex divided equally two age periods (1, 15 days age). The adrenal glands were collected and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for cortical tissue and Orth’s solution for medullary tissue. The sections of 6 μm thicknesses were stained by Haemotoxyllin and Eosin stain (H&E), periodic acid Schiff stain (PAS) and Van Gieson stains. These specimens were conducted for histomorphologic investigation applied in both age periods. Anatomically the glands of local rabbits were paired white to creamy in color, oval to crescent in shape. It was embedded in fat, lying cranial to the cranial pole of kidney within the retroperitoneal cavity similar to these of other mammals. The left adrenal gland was far off from the left kidney as a compared with the right gland. Histologically the adrenal capsule observed as one layer in the two age periods. The zona glomerulosa appeared as an arch of cells at sub capsular region, while the zona fasiculata and reticular zone were undifferentiated at day one old and gradually developed with age. Medulla composed of central vein surrounding by chromaffin cells..

The effect of xylazine on the clinical signs and cellular blood components in horses

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 47-50

The study aim to evaluate the effect of xylazine on the clinical signs and some cellular blood component in horses. It was conducted on six clinically healthy Arabian horses (In Basel Al-Assad center of Arabian horses – Gerba – SYRIA), aged between 3-5 years, and weighing 250-400 kg. The sedative drug xylazine was injected at morning before taking ration in a dose of 1mg/kg BW intravenously. Horses were put under close observations for 24 hrs. The heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, and blood samples from jugular vein in a EDTA vacutanour tubes were taken before drug injection and at 5, 15, 30, 60, 120 minutes, and 24 hrs. after injection. Xylazine were induce sedation and analgesia during the effect period, and cause significant decrease in respiratory rate, Hb concentration, PCV, slowing and arrhythmia of heart rate, while not cause significant changes on RBC, WBC, platelets count, and body temperature. In conclusion, the xylazine is save sedative, and strong analgesic in a dose of 1mg/kg IV in horses, and can be used as premedication before general anesthesia without side effects..

Effect of detomidine on some biochemical tests in horses

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 51-54

The study was designed to evaluate the effect of detomidine on blood chemistry and electrolyte profile in horses. Six horses were injected intravenously with detomidine in a dose of (0.02 mg/kg B.W). Blood samples were collected before drug administration and at 5,15,30,60,120 minutes and 24 hours post injection. Results were revealed a significant increase (p≤ 0.05) in the level of (ALP) enzyme at 30,60,120 minutes after injection, and a modest non-significant increase of (ALT) and (SDH) enzymes at15,30,60 minutes after drug injection. A significant increase in the level of (CPK) enzyme at 30,60,120 minutes was seen and a significant increase in the level of (AST) enzyme has occurred at 15,30,60 minutes. The calcium was gain a slight non-significant increase at 60, and 120 minutes after injection, while the sodium was gain a significant increase at 30,60,120 minutes after the injection, where there was a significant noticeable rise in blood glucose at 15,30,60,120 minutes after injection. In conclusion the detomidine has an effect on blood biochemistry, and it was safe sedative and analgesic drug which can be used to make some simple surgical interventions..

Preparation and evaluation of multivalent infectious bronchitis vaccine from commercial vaccine strains

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 55-60

This study was designed to prepare and evaluate multivalent live attenuated (IBV) vaccine (lyophilized seed) from the commercial IBH120, 491 and MA5 strains in ALkindy Company for Drug and Vaccines Production, to reduce economical losses and increase the broad protection against infectious bronchitis disease in chickens. The viruses inoculated via chorioallontoic cavity route with 0.1 ml at 9-11 days emberyonated eggs obtained from unvaccinated layers against IBV, and were passaged for several times, then three equal doses of the strains were mixed, and the embryonated eggs were inoculated with 0.1 ml of the mixed vaccine. After 72 hours the allontoic fluids (Vaccine) were collected. The results of the infective dose of the new vaccine were 103.2 EID50 /Bird. This multivalent live attenuated IB vaccine was tested for (safety, purity, potency, and sterility test) according to the international protocol steps of vaccine production. Efficacy of multivalent vaccine was evaluated (depending on ELISA, HI, and challenge test) by using 160 one day old (Ross 308) chicks divided into four equal groups (40 chicks of each group) reared in well isolated places. Group (A) was vaccinated with three doses (0.3 ml) of multivalent live attenuated IB vaccine, group (B) was vaccinated with two doses (0.2 ml), group (C) was vaccinated with one dose (0.1 ml) of the multivalent live attenuated IB vaccine via ocular route at the 8th day of age, and group (D) was leaved without vaccination as a control group. Blood was collected at (1, 8, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42) days for ELISA test. The mean titer of maternal immunity at day one of age was 4849.8±1161.8, decreased to 69.9±35.92 at 8th day of age before vaccination. The serum of control group was seen avuncular from IB antibodies at the 14th day of age. The experiment showed a significant differences (p<0.05) titers resulting from use of different doses (0.3 ml, 0.2 ml and 0.1 ml) at age of 14 days, it were 255.30±15.00, 736.60±94.00 and 545.50±17.00 respectively in comparison with zero in control group. The challenge test carried out for different groups with (IB- field isolated Variant 2 strain 105 EID50 / bird which was supplied from Veterinary Directorate) at 28 days old with 0.5 ml through ocular route. Ten birds from each group were taken randomly. According to the clinical signs, morbidity and mortality rate, gross lesion, and the antibody titer, the results carried out that protection rate in group B was higher than others groups, then group C and group A respectively, the test revealed significant differences (p<0.05) between the vaccinated groups, and also between vaccinated groups and control group. This study was concluded the possibility of production IB multivalent live attenuated vaccine (broad protection vaccine) using different IB Vaccine strains in chickens. .

Study the synergistic effect of dietary antioxidant and probiotic on some blood traits of broiler chicks during summer season

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 55-62

This study was design to compare the effect of poultry star® (PS) as probiotic alone on diet and, it combination with vitamin C (VC) or Nigella sativa seed (NSS) as antioxidant on blood physiological and biochemical constituents in modulating the side effect of high summer temperature in broilers. A total of (192) one day old unsexed broiler chicks (Hubbard) where distributed randomly into six equal treatments with two replicate per treatment (16 birds per replicate). All the birds in treatment fed on balanced ration, were used and divided as the following: control treatment (T0) without any addition, (T1) provided with (PS) 1gm/kg, (T2) provided with (VC) 500mg/kg, (T3) provided with (NSS) 10gm/kg, (T4) provided with (PS) 1gm/kg+(VC) 500mg/kg, (T5)provided with (PS) 1gm/kg+(NSS) 10gm/kg diet for (6 weeks). All birds with all the treatments that have exposed to a high cycle temperature range between (28-38-28 C°) during the experiment period. Results showed significant (P<0.05) deteriorated in all the hematological traits (RBC, Hb, PCV, H/L, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein) in control treatment (T0) compared with all treatments. Recorded a significant (P<0.05) and statistical increase in total protein (TP), (RBC), (L%) and decrease in heterophil to lymphocyte ration (H/L) (Stress Index), cholesterol, triglyceride, in (T4,T5) compared with (T1,T2,T3). Result showed significant (P<0.05) decreased blood glucose level in (T4,T2) and a significant decrease in uric acid of (T3,T5) compared with all treatments. Result indicated that, the inclusion antioxidant and probiotic together in the diet had the best effect on the blood hematological traits in broilers during the summer season. .

Diagnostic study on Herpes simplex-1

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 61-68

The study was planned to evaluate the prevalence of HSV-1 infection, and the use of rhabdomyosarcoma and L20B as cell lines for the primary propagation of human herpes simplex1, by using modern diagnostic techniques. Study were involved a collection of 60 samples from dermal lesions, randomly selected from population of ages ranges from 15 to 45 years. These samples were collected during a period extended from February to September 2013. Primarily, these samples were investigated by RT-PCR technique directed to certify human herpes simplex-1 infections. Bosphore® HSV-1&2 Genotyping Kit v1(Anatolia geneworks, Turkey) was used for the detection protocol. From total of 47 HSV-1 positive samples in PCR step, 20 samples were cultured using two cell lines (Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) and L20B cell lines) in an attempt for virus isolation and evaluation capability of these cells for HSV-1 propagation. Results of applied PCR revealed that HSV-1 DNA was correlated with 47(78.3%) positive of the total cases investigated. In the attempt to HSV-1 isolation, both RD and L20B cell lines were demonstrate a specific HSV-1 cytopathic effect. Herpes simplex virus type 1 had been propagated in 19 (95%) of the 20 PCR positive isolates by RD cell line, while 17:20 (85%) HSV-1 isolates were positive on L20B cells. In conclusions: The thermal protocol for Bosphore® HSV-1 Genotyping Kit v1allows very rapid detection of HSV-1 DNA in dermal lesions. It is finding to be laborsaving and show sufficient sensitivity. The RD and L20B cell lines are efficient as cell lines for the propagation of HSV-1, for that It is well recommended to achieve future therapeutic studies on HSV-1. ً.

Serum progesterone analysis for monitoring estrus, pregnancy and parturition in Shami goats

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 69-73

Serum progesterone profiles during estrus phase, gestation period and parturition in twenty female Shami goats (Capra hircus) aged 2-3 years were monitored. Estrus was synchronized by intra-vaginal sponges (containing 60 mg of medroxy progesterone acetate (MPA)) kept for 14 days followed by intramuscular injection of 300 IU of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) immediately after sponges withdrawal. Does were monitored for signs of estrus by means of an apronized detector buck. Those which came into estrus were hand-mated to known fertility bucks. Following the service, blood sampling was carried out at day 0 (at estrus phase) then weekly till parturition. Serum was isolated and utilized for progesterone assay. Progesterone was assayed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) methods. Observation regarding the length of gestation and litter size were recorded. Results were indicated that the monthly gestation, means of progesterone concentration were (4.8±0.70, 5.85±0.88, 8.95±0.72, 9.15±0.33 & 4.37±0.23) ng/ml in 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th months of pregnancy respectively. Monthly progesterone concentration in does bearing single fetus for the above mentioned months of pregnancy were (4.1±0.33, 5.0±0.21, 7.1±0.49, 7.5±0.69, and 2.05±0.31) ng/ml respectively, while in those bearing twin were (5.8±0.36, 6.2±0.42, 10.0±0.21, 9.9±0.28, and 6.5±0.62) ng/ml respectively. In conclusion, the progesterone assay proved to be a reliable method for detection of estrus and early pregnancy and predicting litter size and parturition date..

Detection of parasitic infections and their pathological changes in wild pigeons in Duhok province

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 74-77

The study aimed to detect the external and internal parasites and its association with intestinal pathological changes in wild pigeons at Sumel region-Duhok Governorate. Samples of skin (plumage), intestinal contents, and intestinal tissue were taken from 100 adult pigeons from March to August 2012 for detection of parasites and for histopathological examination. Results were showed that, 6 (6 %) pigeons feather samples were found positive for external parasites (Columbicola columbae), 22 (22%) of fecal samples were found positive for internal parasites (Raillietina tetragona), whereas no trematod and nematode were found. A total of 19 (19%) infected pigeons were appeared pathological changes in intestine, which are manifested by mild catarrhal inflammation and excessive mucoid masses. In conclusion we found that the wild pigeons infested with parasites, and acting as a reservoir and spreading of parasites to other avian populations including poultry. .

Direct detection of Shiga toxin producing by Escherichia coli by real-time PCR

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 78-82

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are defined as strains of E. coli that produce Shiga toxins (stx), which known as important causes of diarrhea in sheep and cattle. This study was conducted to determine of Shiga toxin 1 producing E. coli isolates from diarrheal samples of sheep and cattle. Samples were collected from different fields in Diwanyia city. A total of 50 diarrhea samples (25 of sheep and 25 of cattle) were subjected to bacterial DNA extraction by using (AccuPrep® Stool DNA Extraction Kit). The extracted DNA subjected to Real-Time PCR technique for detection of Shiga toxin 1 (stx1) gene. Results display that sheep are more prevalence to shedding the Shiga toxin 1 producing E. coli in (5/25) (20%), while in cattle (2/25) (8%) positive samples. In conclusion the using of Real-Time technique was shown high specific and rapid method in direct detection of (stx1) gene and most the sheep and cattle which infected by diarrhea carried the Shiga toxin 1 producing E. coli. .

Induction of mastitis in Awassi lactating ewes with a slime producing Staphylococcus aureus

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 83-89

The aim of this study was to investigate the clinico-pathological changes in the mammary gland of Awassi ewes inoculated with a slime producing Staphylococcus aureus. Five ewes were examined clinically by visual inspection and palpation of the teats and udder halves for local and generalized reaction and milk samples were collected in sterile test tubes aseptically for bacterial examination and California mastitis test (CMT) to confirm that these ewes were free from intramammary infection prior to inoculation. The ewes were inoculated with one mL PBS containing 7x102 CFU of slime producing Staph. aureus through the teat canal. Post inoculation, all the ewes were examined clinically and bacteriologically daily for appearances of clinical signs, then the ewes were slaughtered 6 days later, one centimeter cubes from different parts of the mammary gland were obtained and fixed in 10% buffered formalin, processed, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and examined for presence of pathological lesions. The ewes showed systemic disturbances and developed mastitis within 24 h post inoculation, the body temperature, pulse and respiratory rates were elevated accompanied with depression and loss of appetite. The main lesions in the udder characterized by fibrosis of interstitial tissues with polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and mononuclear leukocyte infiltration as well as suppuration in the wall of necrotic milk ducts in addition to abscess surrounded by fibrous connective tissue. This study clearly showed that the slime producing Staph. aureus induced severe mastitis in lactating Awassi ewes, and is the first description of some clinico-pathological features of the ewes mastitis experimentally induced by this organism in Iraq. .

Role of Vitamin E-Selenium in ameliorating sub chronic cadmium sulfate toxicity in rabbits

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 90-95

The study aim to evaluate the ameliorating role of vitamin E-selenium supplementation on serum chemistry and histopathological alterations of liver and heart in rabbits caused by sub chronic cadmium sulfate toxicity. Twenty white newzealand rabbits of six month old were used and they divided in to two groups' ten animals of each. G1 given cadmium sulfate 250mg/L in drinking water, G2 were supplemented with cadmium sulfate 250 mg/L plus vitamin E-selenium 500mg/L daily for 60 days. The results show vitamin E-selenium were significantly improved (P≤0.01) serum ALT, AST, bilirubin, alkaline phosphate, GGT and total protein, while total cholesterol, TG, HDL, LDL, VLDL had some improvement but they didn't reach significant value (P≥0.01), where no changes in the serum myoglobin, troponin and Ck-MP, and the histopathological examinations of liver were confirm these results. in conclusion supplementation of vitamin E-selenium to the feed of rabbits exposed to sub chronic toxicity of cadmium sulfate reduce the effect of toxicity on the bio indicators of liver in this study..

Sheep strawberry foot rot in AL-Diwania province-Iraq

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 96-100

The study was conducted to confirm the registration of strawberry foot rot in sheep in AL-Diwania Province in Iraq. A flock composed of fifty sheep of various ages was observed lesions like warts in five lambs; three samples were collected from each lesion. Samples of crusts and scabs were collected into sterile tubes. Swaps were taken deeply from lesions for direct smear and bacteria culture. 1 cm3 lesion tissue samples had been taken and fixed in 10% formalin for histopatholological examination. Results were revealed that the five animals exhibited clinical signs of presence of obvious warts like lesions in distal limb with grey or brown color covered with grey crusts between coronet and knee joint with 1- 4 cm in diameter and raised about 0.5 from surface of skin, the lesion is very painful when touched. Some lesions are showed bleeding this gave the appearance looks like a strawberry fruit. All the smears from the animal species demonstrated Gram positive, filamentous branching arrangement enclosing 2-4 rows of coccoid cells (like tree) indicating the characteristic microscopic morphology of Dermatophilus congolensis. A granular growth at the bottom like cotton with clear supernatant liquid colonies was observed on liquid media. The histopathological study revealed that there were hyperkeratosis, Para keratosis, thickening in the stratum spinosum layer of epidermis, as well as, deposition of huge melanin pigment in the stratum spinosum cells and acanthosis nigricans, while the histopathological changes in the dermis layer showed edema, deposition of granulation tissue and presence of vesicles that may contain coccoidal cells, also there were infiltration of inflammatory cells in the dermis and in between the sebaceous glands of skin. .

The effect of low level laser therapy on tendon healing in male rats

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 101-113

The study was focused to evaluate the efficacy of low level laser therapy on healing of injured Achilles tendon in rats. Ninety adult male Wistar rats weighing 240±20gm, 10-12 wks. old were used. Animals were divided into three main equal groups; control and two laser treatment groups. Each main group was divided into two equal subgroups; 1-Crushing tendon group, 2-Tendon cutting and anastomosis. Percutaneous crushing of Achilles tendon 1 cm above the hock joint was performed by using artery forceps in 45 rats (15 control, 15 for 4J/cm2, and 15 for 8J/cm2). Completely transverse sever (by scalpel) of Achilles tendon 1 cm above the hock joint was performed in another 45 rats. The cutting tendon was suturing by (modified Kessler technique) using 0/5 silk suture material, and the skin was closed by 0/4 silk simple interrupted suture. GaAlAs diode laser with a wave length of (660 nm) were used for the laser treatment which started immediately after suturing or crushing of tendon, and daily repeated (once a day) for 14 consecutive days. Two doses 4J/cm² and 8J/cm² were used (30 rats for each dose). Control group 30 rats were left without treatment. Specimens of healed tendons (1 cm in length) were taken after (14, 21, and 28) days post injury for histopathological examination by light microscopy after processing and staining with H&E stain to evaluate the healing process. The histopathological findings suggest the favorable qualitative pattern of the newly synthesized collagen, significant number of tenocyte, absence of inflammatory cells and stimulate synthesis of angiogenesis of the regenerating tendons. However, energy density of 8J/cm2 was more effective to healing process than 4J/cm2, by presence of more collagen deposition, significant number of tenocyte, less inflammatory cells and more capillaries were seen. In conclusion, the laser wave length 660 nm in the two doses used in this study was promote healing process in injured Achilles tendon, further the energy density of 8J/cm2 was seen the better in stimulation and maturation of injured Achilles tendon compare with 4J/cm2 dose.2.

Effects of using soluble Beta-glucan on immune responses against infectious bronchitis disease in broiler chicks

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 114-119

The study was conducted to investigate the effects of soluble β-glucan derived from yeast cell wall isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in drinking water on immune response post routine vaccination and challenge with local isolates of infectious bronchitis virus. Four hundred Ross 308 broiler chicks (from 1 to 40 days old) were divided randomly into four equal groups (diet and drinking water offered ad libitum). G1 was given 225µg/ml of soluble β-glucan in drinking water from day 1 to the end of the experiment, and vaccinated with H120 vaccine at one day old by intranasal and ocular drop methods, and Ma5 strain vaccine at 14 days old by spray method. G2 was received 225µg/ml of soluble β-glucan in drinking water from one day to the end of the experiment and considered as control positive. G3 was vaccinated as G1 but without given soluble β-glucan, and G4 considered as control negative (not vaccinated not treated). Results showed that G1 was given significant (P<0.05) increase of antibody titer and gave high production against challenge and increased in IL2 level compared to other groups. In conclusion, we found that the soluble β-glucan enhanced the cellular and humoral immunity against IBV..