Print ISSN: 1818-5746

Online ISSN: 2313-4429

Volume 13, Issue 1

Volume 13, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2014, Page 1-127


Effect of magnetic water on some physiological characters of broiler

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 1-5

This study has been carried out in a private farm in Diwaniya city throughout the period which starting from 1/10/2012to 18/11/2012 by using 180 chicks of Ross breed, divided into six treatments randomly, each treatment contains to 30 birds with three replicates (each one contains 10 birds, study the effect of magnetic water with two intensities ( 1500 and, 750 Gausses )and with two flows (500 and 1000) Lh on physiological traits (Hb, PCV, RBC, WBC, total protein, total albumin, total globulin, GOT and GPT). The treatments have divided as following :First treatment (T1) given tap water and as has been considered as control treatment. Second treatment (T2) given well water. Third treatment (T3) given magnetic – treated water with 1500 Gauss and flow 500 LH. Fourth treatment (T4) given magnetic – treated water with 1500Gauss and flow 1000 LH. Fifth treatment (T5) given magnetic – treated water with 750 Gauss and flow 500 LH. Sixth treatment (T6) given magnetic – treated water with750 Gauss and flow 1000 LH. The result of current study can be summarized as follows :There is significant(P < 0.05) increase in physiological traits (RBC, WBC,HB, P.C.V, total protein and total albumin ) for the third treatment over all treatments, whereas, the third treatment inquired significant (P < 0.05) decrease in globulin GOT and GPT compared with other treatments, and are 1.366 gm.100 ml plasma, 18.666 and 18.666 I.U. L plasma respectively ..

Antibacterial effect of nettle (Urtica dioica)

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 1-6

The antibacterial activity of aqueous and 95% ethanol extracts of nettle leaf were tested against some Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolated from hospitalized patients by the agar well diffusion method. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Bacillus Subtillus, Proteus spp. Salmonella spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were used. The results indicate that both extracts showed different antibacterial activities which was in favor of ethanolic extract because of more solubility of active ingredient in ethanol than in water. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus Subtillus and Salmonella spp. showed the highest susceptibility to nettle extracts antibacterial effect, while E coli, Pseudomonas and Proteus were less susceptible. The only clear resistant bacteria isolate was Klebsiella spp.

A serological detection of infection with avian influenza virus H9N2 in human

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 6-10

The study aim to investigate the infection with the locality isolates H9N2 avian influenza virus in human by using haemagglutination inhibition test, complement fixation test and ELISA test locally prepared kits. Antibodies of avian influenza virus (H9N2) are diagnosed in the sera of persons working and dealing with infected chickens’ flock from which the H9N2 virus was isolate. This 5 sera samples were given positive result in HI test in a titer rate of (275.6) (inhibitor antibodies of heamagluttination), in amount range of (32- 512). The ELISA and the Complement fixation tests were used to detect the avian influenza virus (H9N2) antibodies in the sera of working persons. In addition the anti-avian influenza virus antibodies were detected in (40) Sera samples of peoples were living in direct contact with the chickens and other birds. The sera samples were tested by ELISA, CF and HI tests, and the results showed that the highest percentage (85 %.) of positive sera was in ELISA test.( 85%).

The antimicrobial and wound healing effect of Aloe Vera in induced diabetic rats

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 7-14

The study was conducted on sixteen streptozotocin induced diabetic rats to investigate whether the topical application of Aloe Vera gel and alcoholic Aloe Vera leaf extract could improve the wound healing in diabetic rats. The rats were weight, matched, and placed in to four groups 4 rats of each group. Full thickness circular skin wound (2cm in diameter) was experimentally created dorsal to the neck area of each rat. Animals in group (1) left without dressing as a control group. Animals in group (2 and 3) were treated topically with Aloe Vera gel (100%) and alcoholic Aloe Vera leaf extracts (100%) respectively, while the animals of group (4) were treated with povidone iodine (4%). Treated groups were dresses twice daily for 14 successive days. The treated wound in groups 2, and 3 were significantly healed faster in comparison to the wound of control group. The effect produced by the Aloe Vera with reference to the wound contraction, wound closure, decreased in surfaces area of wound, and tissue regeneration at the wound site. Histologically wounds treated with Aloe Vera show increase in macrophages, fibroblast migration, collagen regeneration and epithelialization compared with the control group. The wet, dry granulation tissue weight, and hydroxyproline content increased significantly when compared to control. Aloe Vera was seen exhibited antimicrobial activity against some pathogenic microorganism. In conclusion Aloe Vera have strong wound healing property and effective as topical preparation and formulated as fairly economical therapeutic agent for wound management.
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Monitoring fetal development in sheep by using real- time ultrasonography

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 11-14

This experiment includes 20 local ewes aged between 2 to 5 years. The aim of this study was to determine the growth pattern of sheep embryo by observing some embryonic organs by using real- time ultrasonography5-7MHz, these organs include heart, allantois, limb bad, intestinal disc, rumen, brain, aortic arch, lung, vertebrate, ribs and liver. And measurement of embryonic vesicle diameter, crown ramp, amniotic vesicle diameter, transthorasic, transabdominal, cotyledon high and width, head length and bi parietal bone. Results showed that there is high correlation (0.931-0.977) between these measurement and gestational age, early pregnancy diagnosis can be detected by observing embryonic vesicle at 14 days after breeding.
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Isolation of some zoonotic bacteria from some ornamental birds

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 15-19

The aim of this study was to isolate the bacteria from different types of ornamental birds which included: 20 (Agapornis pullarius), 12 (Pycnonotus goiavier), 20 (Fringilla coelebs) and 16 (Serinus canaria).The specimens were taken from feathers, intestine, blood, and drink water in Al-Diwaniyah province. The result showed that the salmonella was isolated from all types of the ornamental birds and from all specimens, while Brucella abortus was the less isolated bacteria from all specimens especially the blood specimens. The most isolated bacteria were from love birds and finches which refer to important role of ornamental birds in zoonotic disease.
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Toxopathological and immunotoxical effects of thiamethoxam in white mice

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 15-24

In order to investigate toxopathological and immunotoxic, effects of thiamethoxam in mice. Forty eight white mice ,both sexes were divided into four groups equally ,1st group was immunized twicely with Brucella melitensis Rev1.with two weeks intervals. 2nd group was immunized as in the 1st group and at same time administrated orally with 83.73mgkg B.W of thiamethoxam daily for 6 weeks.3rd group was administrated with thiamethoxam as in the 2nd group while the 4th group was served as control negative group. Immunological examination DTH and humoral immunity revealed that the thiamethoxam induced depressed in both arms of immune response as comparing with vaccinated non-treatment animals. The pathological examination revealed that the thiamethoxam induced, necrosis, hypertrophy of hepatocytes with multiple granulomatous lesion scatter in liver parenchyma and these lesions were progressive with period time particularly at 6 weeks post-treatment that showed marked proliferation of hepatocytes. The electron microscope examination to liver section showed lipid droplet, proliferation of mitochondria enlargement in addition to distraction of nuclear membrane and presence facular space, also there was severe hemorrhage in the renal interstitial tissue with inflammatory cells infiltration together with fibrosis of the glomeruli wall. Congestion with inflammatory cells infiltration in the red pulp of spleen , in addition to gliosis in the brain parenchyma was seen .The immunized animals showed mild pathological changes characterized by aggregation of mononuclear cells, The electron microscope to liver section showed normal organelles cell. with lymphoid hyperplasia in the spleen and in subepithelial layer of intestinal mucosa. We concluded that thiamethoxam induced toxopathological changes in the internal organs of mice and stimulated the immune response diminished its toxic effects.
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Study of post-vaccination reaction of live and killed Newcastle vaccine in broiler chicken

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 20-24

The purpose of this research is to study the reactions resulting from the vaccinations program of broilers by the live attenuated and killed Newcastle disease vaccine where they were taking two broiler chicken halls in Mosul city that different in their Newcastle disease vaccine program. The first hall in Qayyarah place, the number of chicks breeding are 2400 chicks of Rose sweat, which was use the live attenuated vaccine against Newcastle disease twice first time in age of 7 days and the second time at age of 18 days by drinking water, while the second hall was in the area of Talafar, the number of chicks breeding are 2500 chicks of Rose sweat and which was use the killed vaccine in 3 days old by subcutaneous injection and live attenuated vaccine by drinking water in age 10 days.The level of antibodies formed after each vaccination are estimated by heamagglutination inhibition test. The blood samples were collected from the first hall in aged 10 and 21 days while the second hall has been collecting blood samples in aged 13 and 15 days. Blood was collected by slaughter route from five chicks in each time to making the test. Organ samples (Spleen, Bursa of Fabricia and Thymus) were collected during slaughtering chicks in the same ages. The results of heamagglutination inhibition test showed significant difference between the two vaccination programs where the correlation coefficient R2 of the first program are 0.157 and adjusted R2 0.052 at the level of probability (P <0.05) The second program was the correlation coefficient R2 0.006 and adjusted R2 0.049 at the level of probability (P <0.05), where that the vaccination program of the first hall are better than the vaccination program of second hall. The histopathological study of samples which taken from first hall in the spleen showed presence of congestion of blood vessels in the red pulp with the presence of edema , in bursa of Fabricia presence hemorrhage in the pulp for some follicles also noted an increase in lymphocytes in the pulp as well as edema between the lobes at age (21) days, in Thymus observed changes at age (21) days was the presence of bleeding inside the pulp, while the second hall was observed in the Spleen and Bursa of Fabricia just did not show any changes in the Thymus and the changes showed after second vaccination, the spleen was observed at (15) days increased lymphocytes in the white pulp and in Bursa of Fabricia are observed at age (15) days show bleeding between the lobes and inside the pulp with the depletion of lymphocytes in the pulp. We conclude from this study that given the live attenuated vaccine for Newcastle disease to broiler chicken at the beginning of breeding is better than giving the killed vaccine so where lead to rise the level of immunity of the chicks against the Newcastle disease, as well as the use of two type of Newcastle disease vaccine (live attenuated and killed) leads to occurrence the histological changes in the lymphoid organs (Spleen and Bursa of Fabricia and Thymus).

Induce of estrus in nonbreeding season in Iraqi black goats

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 25-29

The study was conducted on 15 local Iraqi goats, presented in the farm of college veterinary medicine, Al-anbar university during the period from 4 March ,2013 to 4 April ,2013.The age of animals ranged between 3 – 4 years old. The animals were divided into 3 groups . The 1st group was injected 10 mg I/m PGF2α . The 2nd group were injected 2 mg I/M estradiol Benzoate, The 3rd group were injected 2ml physiological saline. The animal were put under observation within 72 hr. for detection of estrus. The doe showed estrus inseminated with fertile buck. The result showed that the animals showed estrus was 80% (4/5) in PGF2α treated group, While it was 40% (2/5) in estradiol treated group , it was zero in control group. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between different group. In consideration the method of detection of corpus luteum and follicle , the laparotomy showed accuracy of (100%) as compared with ultrasonography( 50% ).It was concluded from the study that PGF2α was the best drug for induction of estrus in non- breeding season in Iraqi goats. Laparotomy was the best method for detection of ovarian structures.
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Molecular and serological study by using ELISA and rRT-PCR techniques to detect avian infectious bronchitis virus in chickens in Middle Euphrates

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 25-31

The study was conducted to detect Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) in commercial chicken farms of Middle Euphrates, the technique have been used throughout the study protocol, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), Real Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and histopathological study. (172) serum samples were collected from clinically infected vaccinated broiler farm and (29) serum samples were collected from clinically infected non-vaccinated broiler farm, and screened for the presence of IBV antibodies by ELISA.75serum samples from 172 samples were positive ,(43.6%) distributed as followed 43 (61.4%) from Hella, 23 (36.5%) from Najaf and 9 (23.07%) from Diwaneyah ,29 serum samples collected from clinically infected non-vaccinated broiler flocks, were 5 (17.2%) serum positive samples for IBV. (75) tissue samples from clinically infected vaccinated broilers distributed were submitted for rRT-PCR technique, the results were as followed42 (56%) have been detected IBV, while 30 (71.4%) was positive in ELISA, and (15) samples from clinically infected non-vaccinated broilers showed 8 (53.3%) IBV were detectable while 5 (62.5%) was positive in ELISA. Also the research include study the histopathological changes of trachea, lung and kidney of infected birds which were positive for rRT-PCR.

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Preparation of live attenuated and killed vaccines of Newcastle disease (strain AG 68) and immunity evaluation

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 30-36

This study has been conducted to propagate Newcastle Disease virus, strain AG68 in (9-11) day old chicken's embryonated eggs . Five passages have been runned to obtain different titers three of them (EID50 ml 109.1, EID50 ml 109.5, EID50 ml 109.9) titers were used to produce three killed different vaccine doses used in this study. The EID50 ml 109.5 has been diluted to give different dosage attenuated vaccine .Two hundreds and ten birds were divided to seven groups each 30 chicks each. First three groups were vaccinated with different doses subcutaneously with the oil adjuvant vaccine while the other three groups were vaccinated via eye drop at one day old, the seventh group was left as control. All first six groups were vaccinated with AG68 strain by spray on 12th day .Indirect enzyme linked immunosobent assay (ELISA) technique was used to estimate the immune titer at (1st, 14th, 28 th) day and with challenge test at (28) day , in ELISA test in all groups there were significant differences (p < 0.05) between 14th and 28th day . ELISA test at day 14 in groups vaccinated with attenuated vaccine through eye drop at the first day showed high antibody level. At 28th day, groups vaccinated with oil inactivated vaccine have shown higher anti body titers than those vaccinated with attenuated vaccine , all six groups have shown higher antibody titer than control . All vaccinated groups have shown 100% protection against challenge test indicating the protective efficacy of AG68 strain and the two types of vaccine prepared (killed and attenuated) through eye drop , spray , and injection, while the protection percentage in group seven was 20% . As a conclusion, the best killed vaccine dose was EID50 ml 109.5 from economical point of view, this dose shows no significant difference with high dose EID50 ml 1010 through ELISA, also protection percentage through challenge test was the same , The EID50 ml 107 is The best of attenuated vaccine doses, although it showed lower significant difference to the high dose EID50 ml 108 through ELISA test, but it shows no clinical signs of Newcastle disease and has the same protection percentage in challenge test .

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Potential galactogogues effect of Silymarin: An experimental study in female rats

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 32-37

The study aimed to evaluate the galactogogues effect of Silymarin in pregnant and lactating female rats. A total of 72 pregnant female Wistar rats randomly divided into 3 groups (24 rats of each). Rats in first group used as control, received drinking water daily for 14 days from 8th day of gestation till the delivery, while the animals in second group, received Metoclopramide (5mgkgday) as the same period. In addition to Silymarin group (treatment group) received Silymarin (200 mgkgday) as the same period. Dams’ body weights have been monitored throughout the pregnancy. At the first day of parturition, litter weights have been measured, and (8) animals of each groups were sacrificed, blood sample were collected to measure the serum prolactin level. In addition, the litters were allocated in to (8) litters per lactated dam. Then each group sub divided in to two sub groups A and B according to continue or discontinue of received drugs, for 11days from parturition. Silymarin in a dose (200mgkg) was significantly increase litters body weight and serum prolactin level in pregnant female rat (p< 0.05) in compared with control and Metoclopramide groups. Silymarin and Metoclopramide during the eleventh day of lactation registered significant differences (P<0.05) in their serum prolactin concentration, litters weight gain compared with that stopped in receiving the treatment in the same group, whereas control subgroups revealed no significant (P>0.05) differences when compared with each other. It can be concluded that Silymarin has potential glactogoguse effect and enhance milk production.
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Measuring the humoral immune response to various vaccine programs against Newcastle disease in broiler using hemagglutination test and ELISA test

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 37-40

The present study carried out to assess different vaccination programs against Newcastle disease to know the best program which provides bold protection against Newcastle disease. The present study designed to contain four groups of broiler chicks (type Hubbard), and vaccination programs done as following:T1 vaccinated at day old by spraying method with live vaccine type (B1), then vaccinated at 10, 20, and 30 days old with live vaccine type (Lasota) by drinking water method. T2 vaccinated at day old by spraying method with live vaccine type (B1), then vaccinated with killed vaccine at five days old by injecting subcutaneously at neck region.T3 vaccinated at day old by spraying with live vaccine type (B1), then vaccinated at 7, and 18 days old with live vaccine type (Lasota) by drinking water method. T4vaccinated at 7, 18, and 35 days old with live vaccine type (Lasota) by drinking water method. Maternal immunity assessed at 2 days old then Immune response assessed in 14, 24, 34, and 44 days old by heamaglutination inhibition test (HI) test and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and daily body weight recorded. The results of immune response tests revealed there is non-significance between experimental groups at 1, 14 days old (P≤0.05), while there is highly significance in antibody level between T2 and other groups at 24 days old (P≤0.05). In the 34th days old there is significance between T2 and T3 only while there is insignificance between other groups (P≤0.05). In 44th days old there is high level of antibody in T2 which is significant in compare with other experimental groups (P≤0.05).The present study provided the evidence of efficacy of the program that used killed vaccine which preceded with live vaccine by spraying method and followed by live vaccine by drinking water method in compare with other famous usable programs, and this efficacy represented in the levels of immune response and body weight, the present study also showed that increasing of vaccination numbers considered stress factor as well as it provide solid immunity against Newcastle disease.
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Microbial evaluation of some kinds of canned milk available in the markets of Al-Diwaniya city

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 38-42

This study aimed to compare bacterial contamination indicators such as (total bacterial count, total coliform count and faecal coliform count) for some canned milk belonging to different origins (Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi) available in the markets of Diwaniya city, in comparison with standards parameters and determine the validity of these products for human consumption. Through the results of the current study observed that Kuwaiti canned milk was a high bacterial count (62 × 10 ^ 4)CFUml, followed by Syrian canned milk (54 × 10^ 4) CFUml and Jordan milk (52 × 10 ^ 4) CFUml and Saudi milk with bacterial content (53 × 10 ^ 4) CFUml, (51 × 10 ^ 4) CFUml and (50 × 10 ^ 4) CFUml, respectively, to three types of Saudi canned milk, as for the Iraqi local milk has the amount of bacterial count (42× 10 ^ 4) CFUml. Isolation and Identification of contaminated bacteria include (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp., Klebsiella. pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Through these indicators, the samples of imported milk was above the standard level of contamination and therefore out the standard of health, either the local milk it contains a less proportion of contamination from the importer, this was due to being produced locally and thus the short period of storage and quick access to the consumer.
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Hypoglycemic and hypolipidimic effect of naringin in diabetic male rats

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 43-47

The current study aimed to determine the potency of aqueous extract of grape fruit (Naringin) in lowering blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetic male rats (by single injection of Streptozotocin at the dose of 60 mg/kg of the body weight). Naringin was extracted from grapefruit albedo (white inner Pell) by using aqueous hydrolysis, then it was identified on Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC).The results of thin layer chromatography have showed that Rf values was 0.75 in aqueous extract compared with Rf standard naringin (0.76).Twenty four adult male rats were randomly assigned to three equal groups treated for 30 days as follows: Intact control (C) , Diabetic Control (D.M.), treated diabetic rats (T) received (80mg/kg B.W.) of flavonoids (naringin). Blood sample were obtained befor and after 10,20 and 30 days from treatment. The results showed significant decrease in body weight , blood glucose , cholesterol, and triglyceride in T group. These results showed that naringin has potential hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

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The histopathological changes at skin of German shepherd dogs associated with ringworm infection in directorate of K9 in Al-Diwanyia province.

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 48-51

The current study was conducted to exam the histopathological changes of skin of German shepherd dogs suffering from ringworm infection. It may be the first study on this breed of dog in the Al-Diwanyia province. Seven German shepherd dogs from directorate of K9 in Al-Diwanyia province suffering from skin lesion were used in this study. Highly contaminated fur of infected dogs was cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar (SDA). A five mm shaved biopsies of skin from all cases were taken from lesions present on shoulder region and after routine processes histological technique to evaluate the histopathological changes. The result were revealed that the colonies of Microsporum canis was flat, spreading, white to faint creamy-coloured with a dense buffy, granular to coarsely fluffy to hairy surface with radial grooves, and the histopathological exam of skin were showed presence of hyperkeratosis, spongiosis and marked dermal edema, skin bullae in the epidermal layer and accumulation of collagen fibers found of spores and hyphae of Microsporum in the stratum basale layer of epidermis and infiltration of eosinophils in the dermis layer directly beneath the basal layer of epidermis.

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Protective effect of Punica granatum peel extract against gastric mucosal erosions induced by ethanol in experimental rabbit models

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 52-58

The present study was designed to detect the gastroprotective effect of ethanolic (96%) extract of Punica granatum peel, besides investigation of its activity as hepatoprotective and nephroprotective agent. 1 ml of 80% ethanol/rabbit was given as a single oral dose for induction of gastric erosions and hepato-renal changes in both induction (ethanol group) and treatment groups at the 16 th day of experiment (i.e. following 15 days of daily treatment with pomegranate peel extract).These effects were assessed by examination of some biochemical tests including; blood glucose, triglycerides, renal function test (urea, creatinine), and liver function test (ALT, GGT), in addition to the evaluation of the histopathological changes of the stomach samples. Animals pretreated with Punica granatum peel ethanolic extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day orally for 15 days showed significant reduction in blood glucose, urea, creatinine, ALT, and GGT where as blood TG was not affected in comparison with the ethanol group (P ≤  0.05).On the other hand, microscopic examination of stomach samples of the treatment group revealed regenerated gastric ulcer and lesions, and the distorted superficial gland in the mucosa are regenerated when compared with those observed on the samples of the ethanol 80% group.In conclusion, the obtained data demonstrate that pomegranate peel ethanolic extract is a potent gastroprotective agent and suppresses ethanol 80%-induced gastric damage in rabbits. 80%.

Histopathological changes and immunosuppression induce by diazepam in mice

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 59-65

In order to investigate the histological changes and immunosuppression effects of diazepam in mice, forty white mice of both sexes were divided into four groups equally. 1st group was immunized twice with pasturella multocida (bacterines) with two weeks intervals. 2nd group was immunized as in the 1st group and at same time administrated orally with 0.6 mgkg b.w of diazepam daily for 8 weeks. 3rd group was administrated with diazepam as in the 2nd group while 4th group was served as control negative group. Immunological examination revealed that the diazepam inducing depresses of the both arms of immune response, the cell mediated immunity and humeral immunity as comparing with vaccinated non-treatment animals. The pathological examination revealed that the diazepam induced large multiple granulomatous liver lesions consist form aggregation mononuclear cells particularly macrophages and lymphocytes. In addition, section of kidney showed marked inflammatory cells infiltration particularly mononuclear cells and neutrophils in the interstitial tissues was seen. In spleen there was congestion of blood vessels with mononuclear cells in their lumen and depletion of white pulp as well as proliferation of megakaryocytes, in addition to gliosis in the brain parenchyma was seen. The immunized animals showed mild pathological changes characterized by aggregation mononuclear cells around central vein in addition to proliferation of kupffer cells, Spleen show proliferation of lymphocytes in the periartiriolar sheath as well as protein aqueous materials deposition around white pulp. We concluded that diazepam induced Histological changes in the internal organs of mice and stimulated the immune response diminished its toxic effects.
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Acute and chronic pathological effects with biochemical alteration of thyroid gland induced by NaF in Wistar rats

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 66-74

Thirty Wistar albino rats of both sex, 1-1.25 months old (average body weight 250 – 300gm) were used. Animals were randomly divided into three groups. 1st group (acute group) n=10 given 0.5 ml. contain 500 mg/kg/body weight NaF, as single toxic dose via stomach tube. 2nd group (chronic group) n=10 given 0.5 ml. contain 150 mg/kg/body weight NaF via stomach tube daily for 60 days. 3rd group (control group) n=10 given 0.5 ml. physiological saline via stomach tube. Clinical signs were reported during the course of the study, and then sacrificed after 3 and 7 days in 1st group, and 30 and 60 days in 2nd group, then post mortem examination was done, and any gross lesions were reported. Blood collected was done for biochemical examination (T3, T4, and TSH.) using special biochemical kits. Pieces of thyroid were taken, fixed in 10% formalin for 72 hours, and then all the specimens were processed and the histopathological changes were observed under light microscope. The pathological results showed hemorrhage appear in capsular region of thyroid gland with vacuolation in cytoplasm of cell of colloid with neutrophils infiltration in lumen, as well as edema with fume cytoplasm and marked vacuolation of cytoplasm of colloid cell, also granulomatous lesion seated in gland parenchyma. That causes alteration of biochemical test T3, T4 and TSH in acute and chronic toxic doses.
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Clinical and histopathological study of brooder pneumonia in broiler farms

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 75-79

The outbreaks of aspergillosis in broiler chicks (4-15 days old) were observed from January to July, 2011 in five broiler farms. The disease was detected on the basis of clinical signs, gross, histopathological and cultural findings. Infected chicks showed signs of ruffled feathers, green watery diarrhea, anorexia, gasping and dyspnea. On examination, numerous small white yellowish nodules were seen in the lungs, air sacs, kidneys, thoracic wall and abdominal serosa. Microscopically the lungs revealed granulomas with central areas of caseation surrounded by heterophils and giant cells. Aspergillus fumigatus could be isolated in Sabouraud’s dextrose agar from the lesions. Higher morbidity (76 to 100%) and mortality (62.5 to 100%) rates were recorded in the five farms. This is the first record on the occurrence of acute aspergillosis in broiler chicks from Sulaimania/ Iraq.
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Effect of synthetic colorants (Sunset yellow and Ponceau 4R) in some biochemical and histopathological parameters of albino rats

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 80-84

Color additives are used for a wide variety of purposes and in great amount. However,the sharp increase in the use of synthetic food colorants in the past few years and additionally there is an uncontrolled use of synthetic color. The present investigation is planned to illustrate the effects of two synthetic color additives(Sunset yellow and Ponceau 4R) for biochemical and histopathologically on liver and kidney of rats. Thirty adult Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three equal groups as follows; Animals in control group (CG) served as the control group received distilled water, Sunset yellow group (SG) received Sunset yellow (2g/kg bw ) dissolved in distilled water, Ponceau group (PG) receive Ponceau 4R (4g/kg bw) dissolved in distilled water, treatments done for 45 days. Then the blood sample was collected from heart puncture to estimate serum urea, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and the liver and kidney were removed for histopathological study. The results showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in serum urea concentration (mg/dl) in SG and PG compared with CG, also a significant increase in AST and ALT compared with CG. The histological examination showed a fatty degeneration of the liver in (SG) while kidney showed (nephritis) meanwhile (PG) showed vacuolar degeneration with congestion in central vein of liver the kidney showed tubular degeneration. Therefore, synthetic colorants administration should not be used for large amount or for long period in man’s diet or drink.
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Anatomical and histological study of thyroid gland in female local donkeys (Eqws africanus asinus) at Basrah city

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 85-87

Thyroid gland is an endocrine gland that influences many organs of the body and play an important role in the metabolism of animals and another species. Thyroid gland of female donkeys was situated in the interior part of neck inferior to the larynx. It consist of two lobes were connected by isthmus. The mean and SD of length, width, and thickness in right lobe was 25.66±0.41mm, 21.31±0.59mm, 8.51±0.009mm, while in the left lobe it was 23.15±o.16 mm. 19.65±o.22mm, 8.42±0.19mm respectively. Histologically, the thyroid gland surrounded by connective tissue capsule and contained follicles, follicular epithelium, and parafollicular cells. The follicles filled with colloid.
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Macroscopic study of syrinx in the common bulbul (Pycnontus barbatus) and indigenous pigeon (Columba domestica)

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 88-93

In this study, syrinx of five male common bulbuls (Pycnontus barbatus) weighing (25.93 ±0.89 g) and five male indigenous pigeons (Columba domestica) weighing (286±0.73 g) were examined for macroscopic structure. The results showed the anatomical positions of the syrinx. The syrinx was observed ventral to the esophagus exactly on the base of heart in the common bulbul, whilst in pigeon; the syrinx was hidden by the heart. The morphological structure of the syrinx in both species could be classified as tracheobronchial type. The number of tracheo-syringeal rings could not be determined certainly in common bulbul, while in the pigeon, tracheo-syringeal part was composed of the two cartilaginous rings (T1 and T2). These two cartilaginous rings were different in diameters, and joined each other at middle. In the common bulbul, tympanum which is the middle part of syrinx has the bilateral bulla; while tympanum of pigeon does not have bulla. Furthermore the broncheo-syringeal cartilages form the caudal part of syrinx, which are composed of five C-shaped rings in both species. The caudal syringeal part of common bulbul has interbronchial foramen, which absents in pigeon.
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The relationship between the postpartum uterine prolapse incidence and some macro minerals serum level deficiency in cow in Basra province

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 94-97

The study was performed to investigate macro minerals in the cow’s serum suffering from post-parturient uterine prolapse compared with other cows without incidence of prolapse. In the present study, 30 cows during 72 hours after calving, 15 calving without uterine prolapse (control group), and 15 calving suffer from uterine prolapse (treated group).The results showed a drastic decrease in serum macro minerals levels of treated group animals, so the results show the calcium serum level (5.56±0.19 mg/dl), phosphorus (3.30±o.30 mg/dl) and magnesium (1.42±0.09 mg/dl) compared with levels in control animals that show (10.34±0.44, 5.33±0.21, 3.79±0.37) mg/dl of the calcium, phosphorus and magnesium successively. It was concluded that deficiency of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium serum level in the last period of pregnancy and at the parturition might be possible causes of post parturient uterine prolapse in these cows.
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Effect of aqueous green tea extract on male Wistar rats reproductive hormones level

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 98-101

The current study was carried to investigate the effect of green tea extract in improvement of male rats reproductive efficiency after exposed to oxidative stress by streptozotocin.40 male rats at 60 days old with 135±11gm in weight were randomly divided into four equal groups, the first drenched with distilled water for 60 days as control group(C).the second (T1)was given aqueous extract of green tea (100mg/kg/bw) for 60 days, while the third group (T2 injected (i.p) single dose of streptozotocin (60mg/km/bw) for induction of oxidative stress, the forth group injected with single dose of streptozotocin (60mg/km/bw) and after 30 days drenched with green tea extract(100mg/km/bw) for 30 days.at day60 of experiment all animals were sacrificed , blood samples were collected from ventral vein and serum samples were isolated for measurement of male reproductive hormones (LH,FSH, and Testosterone) by ELISA test. the testes samples were taken for histological study and dimensions of seminiferous tubules, samples of epididymis for study of seminiferous tubules dimensions. The results of study was revealed significant increase (P≥0.05)in testosterone and FSH in (T1) group compared with other groups while there is non-significant changes in LH concentration compared with other groups.

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Evaluation the effect of placenta on some clinical biochemical parameters during different reproductive periods in New Zealand white female rabbits.

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 102-106

The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different reproductive periods on some biochemical parameters (ALP, ALT, AST and GGT) in New Zealand white female rabbits. The study was carried out in the animal house of the college of veterinary medicine in Al- Qadisyia university on 21 female New Zealand white rabbits, the animals were divided to 3 groups each group contain 7 rabbits: group A as control non-pregnant rabbits ,group B were pregnant rabbits and final group C were lactating female rabbits. Fresh blood samples (4 ml) were collected and centrifuged to obtained serum, then Reflotron apparatus was used for estimation of some enzymes (ALP,ALT, AST and GGT) in all groups of experiment. The results of group A revealed that the means of (ALP, ALT, AST and GGT) were (44.54, 45.52, 20.74 and 6.08) U/L respectively, while the means of enzymal levels in group B were (105.9, 48.08, 22.68 and 6.8) U/L respectively, and the means of enzymal levels in group C were (49.9, 46.21, 21.84 and 6.72) U/L respectively. The levels of ALP in group B showed significant increase (P<0.01) as compared with A and C groups, while there no significant increment among sera of three groups levels of (ALT, AST and GGT).
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Reproductive performance improvement in Iraqi buffaloes by using different hormonal regimes

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 107-110

The present study was performed on 153 Iraqi cow buffaloes, suffered from ovarian inactivity after 60 days from calving, in Babylon province in period from November 2012 to August 2013. The affected animals were divided into four groups randomly according to the hormonal treatment regime, 48 cow buffalo treated with 1000 I.U/I.M of PMSG in one does in day 60 postpartum, which represents the 1st group, while the 2nd group include 45 cow buffalo treated with 0.021mg/I.M of GnRH (Receptal) in one does in day 60 postpartum, but the 3 rd group (36 cow buffaloes) treated with hCG 1500 I.U/I.M in a single dose also after 60 days postpartum, while 4th group (24 cow buffalo) was represented the control group(without treatment). The response animals for different hormonal treatment were 87.2%, 80%, 69.4% and 54.1% for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th group respectively. The 1st group which treated with PMSG give higher significant differences (p<0.01) compared with other groups, also the 2nd group (treated with GnRH) record significant differences (p<0.01) compared with 3rd and 4th group. The duration of response also record higher significant differences (p< 0.01) between 1st and 2nd group compared with 3rd and 4th group, while the number of services per conception was no different between all groups, but the pregnancy rate record superior significant differences (p<0.01) for the 1st group compared with other groups and reached to 85% but the 4th group (control group) record low ratio compared with treated groups. Finally the days open was recorded superior significant differences between 1st and 2nd group compared with 3rd and 4th group, also 4th group record long postpartum period (175.82± 13.56 days). They concluded in this study that the hormonal treatment still an important method to treated the ovarian inactivity and this fact depends on the many reproductive parameters which involve the rate of response animals, duration of response, number of services per conception, pregnancy rate and days open.
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Effect of alcoholic extract of Apium graveolens leaves on some physiological properties of a broilers

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 111-114

This study was carried out on fourteen broiler arranged between (1100 – 1500) gm. in weight to estimate the effect of drenching of alcoholic extract of Apium graveolens leaves on some physiological properties. The birds were divided into two groups which are control and treatment group seven birds for each group. The birds in both groups are housed in same condition, include temperature, light, food, and water during experiment period.The control group cavaged with 1 ml distilled water while treatment group cavaged with 10 mgkg. B.W. of alcoholic extract of Apium graveolens leaves dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water for two weeks. The birds were weighted and blood sample were taken two times before and after treatment. The results of this study was revealed a significant increase in red blood cells count, hemoglobin concentration, and packed cell volume, while there is no significant changes in white blood cells count, and body weight .
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Effect of Ivermectin on semen parameters and levels of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzymes in seminal plasma of Iraqi Awassi rams

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 115-119

The objective of this study was to evaluation the effect of Ivermectin on semen quality and estimation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in seminal plasma. Six mature Awassi rams aged 2-3 years and weighing 38-42 Kg were used in this study. Semen collection was done weekly for five weeks from the same ram. The first two collection was considers as training for the animal and discarded, the second two collection were considers for control group. After administration of the drug (Ivermectin), semen samples were collected from the Awassi ram 1, 7,14 days. The parameter studies were included semen volume, percentage motility of sperm, sperm concentration, live sperm, and morphology percentage. Samples of seminal plasma were analyzed for the estimation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Results of this study indicate that Ivermectin leads to significant (P<0.05) decreased in semen parameters after first semen collection. Reaction time significantly higher (P<0.05) in the treated group after 1 days of injection. Alanine aminotransferase ALT, Aspartate aminotransferase AST show no significant differences in activities in seminal plasma during study. In conclusion: it is preferable to use the animals for the purpose of reproduction only after at least 7 days after Ivermectin injection due to it harmful effect on semen quality.

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Anatomical and histological study of esophagus in (Lorasmelonocephalus) at Basra city

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 120-123

The study carried out on (10) esophagus specimens of healthy sea gull birds (Lorasmelonocaphalus). The length of the esophagus (both the cervical and the thoracic parts) was found 2.85±0.3 cm. The esophagus was situated between the oropharynx and glandular part of the stomach. It was a thin walled and elastic muscular tube. The histological examination showed that it was composed from four layers. The first layer lined by stratified squamous keratinized epithelium which based on lamina properia that contain mucous glands in the thoracic part of esophagus while the second layer the sub mucosal layer consist of mucous gland followed by muscularis layers which consist of two layers, circular inner layer and longitudinal external layer based on serosal layer.
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Cytological analysis of transtracheal washes from healthy camels in Al-diwaniya province

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 124-127

This study was coducted to quantity the cytological parameters; total protein TP, white blood cells count WBCc and differential WBCc; from transtracheal washes TTW (sometimes called transtracheal aspirate)from thirty healthy camels in Al-diwaniya province. Both sexes were included and the animals ranged in 5-10 years old. The total protein measured by the spectrophotometer ranked in 6.2-7.9 mg/dl, WBCc was 595-643/µl while the differential WBCc record 60% lymphocytes, 28% macrophages, 10% neutrophils, 1% eosinophils and 1% basophils. There was no obvious regard to gender or age on these parameters.
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