Print ISSN: 1818-5746

Online ISSN: 2313-4429

Volume 13, Issue 2

Volume 13, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2014, Page 1-154

Histological study of lungs in local chicken

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 1-4

The study aim to investigate the histological structure of lungs of local chicken and compare them with the other species of birds with foundation of the differences. Ten birds of local chicken 9 months old were dissected. The lungs were takeout, examined, fixed with formalin, and specimens in cross and longitudinal sections were taken for histological examinations. Grossly we notice that the lungs are symmetrical structures located in the dorsal part of thoracic cavity at the level of the second rib, not reach to the last rib. Histologically seen the lung has many lobules which contain a central area of tertiary bronchi surrounded by pulmonary parenchymal capsule, The connective tissue have branches of pulmonary artery and vein with some elastic fibers. The Tertiary bronchi lead to several atria which pass to air capillaries which are the terminal branches of bronchi and the area of gas exchange instead of alveoli in mammals..

Mycotic mastitis in sheep

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 1-4

The study was aimed to investigate the mycotic mastitis in sheep during the period from October 2011 to May 2012 in different areas of Al-Diwaniya province. 253 ewes were examined, and from which 500 milk samples were collected (495 samples from apparently healthy ewes that examined by California Mastitis Test (CMT ) in addition to five samples from sheep infected with clinical mastitis) for isolation and identification of yeasts and molds adopted the method of culturing on Saboaurad Dextrose and Corn meal agar in addition to Chrome agar and biochemical tests as well as specific yeast kits (Integral system yeast plus) for diagnosing the mycotic agents. Results were indicate that the incidence of mastitis in ewes was 17.8%, while the percentage of mycotic mastitis was 9.4%, (0.4% and 9% of clinical and subclinical forms respectively). Yeasts were isolated and identified grossly by colony shape, size, and color, and by biochemical testing which represents 9.61% of the fungal causes, and the yeasts isolates were Candida famata and Rhodotorula rubra from the clinical cases of mastitis only. Molds 90.38% also were isolated, as a high isolates of Asperigllus niger 28.84%, Asperigllus flavus 23%, Asperigllus fumigauts 17.30%, Pencillium spp 13.33%, Asperigllus terrus 5.76%, and the least percentage of isolation 3.84% was of the fusarium spp. 3.84 % .

The effect of dried Saccharomyces cerevisiae feed supplementation in some hematological parameters of Japanese Quail

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 5-10

The study was carried out for three months at one of commercial poultry farms, from the 1st March to the 1st of June 2013 to investigate the effect of dried Saccharomyces cerevisiae feed additive on some hematological traits of Japanese Quail. One hundred and fifty of Japanese Quail birds of sixty days old were utilized and divided into three treatment groups with two replicates (25 birds of each one). The first group (T1) fed on basal ration without adding of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and represented as control group. The T2 fed on basal ration plus 0.1% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and T3 fed on the basal ration with 0.2% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results were revealed that the third treatment were significantly (P<0.05) higher in RBC count, Hb, and PCV at 4th, and12th week, while there was no significant (P>0.05) in WBC between the treatments. Birds receiving 0.2% dried Saccharomyces cerevisiae in (T3) had higher total protein and significantly decreased (P<0.05) of cholesterol and uric acid concentration, with no significant ( P>0.05) changes of GPT, and GOT enzymes at 4th, and 12th week, while there was significant decrease ( P<0.05) of GOT, and GPT at 12thWeeks of age compared with control group. From this we conclude that the use of feed containing dried Saccharomyces cerevisiae has new means in improving the qualities of the blood to the rest of the Quail by improving the productive and physiological performance of birds..

Prevalence of Theileriosis in sheep in Wasit province

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 5-8

The present study was arranged between October 2012 to June 2013 in Wasit province. A total of 500 blood samples of sheep were collected: (450 of clinically suspected sheep with theileriosis (359 females and 91 males), and 50 of healthy animals as a control group (35 females and 15 males). Theileria parasite was seen in two forms rod and ring form inside the RBCs in blood smears stained with Giemsa stain. Results of microscopical examination of blood smears show that 22.8 % of suspected animals were infected with Theileriosis with significant differences at (p<0.05), and most of these cases were in chronic forms. The results revealed that there was no effect of sex on the rate of infection, while most of infection was showed among those animal with age equal or more than three years (26.6 %), in addition to the infection was seen concentrated in hot months of study..

Diagnosis of avian tuberculosis in a poultry farm in Wassit province (Case report)

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 9-13

The study was aimed to investigate the pathological changes of avian tuberculosis in poultry farm in Wassit province in Iraq. A total of 500000 layer hens (Lohmen brown breed) over six month old were reared in a large poultry farm. In a chronic state the farm over a year reported periodic losses of birds mostly of breeding hens. From those affected birds with the chronic condition a fifty birds were selected and sacrificed for PM and histopathological examinations. The main pathological changes were found in the intestine, which include, the villi of small intestine looks like thickened, corrugated, and filled with macrophages, a granulomatous inflammatory reaction was the main lesion in the small intestine while the large intestine (ceci) found with dilated mucus glands with macrophages in lamina propria. Secondary reactions were seen in liver, heart, and kidney. In the liver the lesions were congestion of blood vessels, periportal fibrosis, and bile duct proliferation. In heart a mass of aggregation of lymphocytes were found. The kidney of infected chickens showed dilated cortical tubules and mononuclear cell in cortical stroma. Through the study's conclusion that the field has been contaminated and infected with the germ of avian tuberculosis. .

Histopathological study of some internal organs in cats infected with Toxoplasma gondii

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 11-15

The current study was involved the detection of Toxoplasma gondii parasite in domestic cats in AL-Diwania governorate using rapid cassette test and study the histopathological changes of some organs in infected cats. Ten cats were collected during the period 2012-2013. Serum samples were taken from cats for testing with rapid cassette test. Results of the test indicated the presence of three cats infected with the parasite in percentage of 30%, two sera of which contained on the antibody of the IgG type by 66.66% while the third serum sample contains the IgG and IgM antibodies together by 33.34%, and the higher percentage for the presence of antibodies in serum of cats were 66.66% of the IgG antibody, and the lowest was 33.34% to the IgG and IgM antibodies together. The histopathological sections of parasite-infected cats indicate presence of lesions in liver, brain, and kidney. The liver lesions were characterized by the presence of vascular congestion as well as vacuolation of hepatocytes, with clear fatty degeneration and necrosis, and presence of tissue cysts of parasite. The cross section of brain were characterized by presence of calcified tissue cyst with filtration of astrocytes and microglia. In kidney sections the histopathological changes were presence of renal glomeruli calcification and dilation of renal convoluted tubules. .

Some epidemiological features of BCoVs infection in Al-Qadisiya province by using real time-qPCR technique.

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 14-19

This study was carried out to evaluate some epidemiological features of Bovine Coronavirus infection by using one-step real-time fluorogenic quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay based on SYBR Green I dye in detection. Coronaviruses detected by the same neocleocapsid (N) gene primers under 98% similarity with HECV-4408 (human enteric Coronavirus) in children according to NCBI with product size 124bp. 285 fecal samples has been examined by routine methods against pathogenic bacteria in the intestines (E.coli, Salmonella Spp.) and Cryptosporidium parvum, the samples positive for the parasite submitted to molecular testing because they may be mixed with coronavirus infections. 100 samples were screened for the presence of BCoVs antigens by using a immunochromatographic rapid test as a field fast test. Where 44% of samples showed positivity to BCoVs, out of 50 samples submitted to quantitative reverse transcription (RT-qPCR) assay. Out of 50 – 31 samples had been positive. We found, that distribution of BCoVs was significantly higher in rural areas 33.3%-87.5% as compare to cities 71.4%-75%, the infection in males reach to75% vas 53.5% in females, high infection rate 62.9% in < 1- 4 months age as compare with > 1 month age 62.9%. The results of infection rate showed high percentage during February 77.7% while the percentage on (January, December, March, and April) was (66.6%, 66.1%, 54.5% and 50%) respectively..

Determination the levels of cadmium and lead in raw milk of cows, sheep and goats in Al-Qadisiya province

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 16-22

This study was undertaken in Al-Qadisiya province during the period from December 2012 to March 2013 to determine the levels of cadmium and lead in raw milk of cows, sheep and goats in compared with the permissible levels reported by the international organizations. The study was included the analysis of (150) raw milk samples (50) samples per each species of animals from different regions of the province involving Diwaniya center, Sanyia, Shafeia Daghara, and Al-Hamza, (10) samples from each region. Results of the statistical analysis showed that there was a significant differences ( p˂0.05) in levels of Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) among the studied animals, the highest level of Cadmium and Lead were (0.251 and 0.801) mg /L respectively for sheep milk and the lowest values (0.098 and 0.311) mg / L respectively for cow's milk, and also shown significant difference (P<0.05) among different regions where the highest level of Cadmium and Lead were (0.184 and 0.624) mg / L respectively for AL-Hamza district and the lowest level were (0.144 and 0.507) mg / L respectively for AL-Daghara region. These values were a higher than permissible levels (0.005) ppm for Cadmium and (0.02) mg / L of milk for Lead .

Detection of bovine rotavirus in diarrheic calves by using rapid test in some Mid-Euphrates provinces

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 20-26

The study was aimed to determine the Rota viral infection rates in diarrheic calves and effectiveness of some epidemiological factors on that rate in some provinces in Mid–Euphrates region in Iraq (Babylon, Al-Najaf, Karbala, Al-Qadisyia provinces). A total of 530 calves aged between 1-60 day were examined and fifty fecal (50) samples were collected from diarrheic calves only within six months period from November-2012 to April -2013. The fecal samples were examined for the presence of rotavirus by rapid rotavirus test (screening test), as well as the clinical examination for these diarrheic calves were done. The rapid test demonstrated that the rotavirus infection rate was 18/50 (36%). A 45.4% of rotavirus infection was found in calves less than 30 days of age which was significantly higher than 28.5% calves (30-60) days old. Male and female (37.5%, 40% respectively) were seen infected without any significant differences. The main clinical signs observed on rotavirus diarrheic calves were include, watery voluminous diarrhea with profound weakness and mild depression, so as temperature, respiration, heart rates could be decreased and appetite was changeable towards loss or anorectic. In Babylon, the highest rotavirus infection rate was recorded 60%, and less rates in Karbala 20% and 40%, 33% in AL-Najaf and AL-Qadisyia provinces respectively. The rotavirus infection rate in diarrheic calves was affected by months significantly, which it was higher at January 75%, so as in November 50%, December 40% and February 33.3%, but not recorded in March and April..

Seroprevalence and molecular detection of Bovine Parainfluenza-3 Virus (BPI-3V)

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 27-32

The study aims to investigation the presence of Bovine Parainfluenza-3 Virus (BPI-3V) by using direct Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Real Time- quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction RT-qPCR technique and evaluation some clinical and epidemiological features of the disease. One hundred forty seven (147) animals of different age (6 months to 8 years) and sex from different regions of Al-Diwaniya governorate that showed respiratory signs were examined between November 2012 and April 2013. Results of clinical study showed that there was increase in body temperature up to 40 C0, serous watery nasal discharge, increase respiratory rate, abnormal breath sound (loud, harsh sound, whistling or wheezing), and coughing. The infection rate by using direct ELISA test was (30.26 %). The spreading rate of BPIV-3 in relation to ages, regions and months of the years was (48%) in age group 6 months-3 years, highest rate (60%) in December as compare with other months and Sedeer region recorded infection rate (40%). The results of Real Time-qPCR showed high infection rate of BPI-3 virus 55.13% in cattle population as high sensitivity of this technique. Higher percentage recorded in tracheal tissue sample 60.60 % as compare with lungs tissue and nasal swabs in percentage 54.54% and 50%, respectively. In conclusion there was a characteristic epidemiological feature of spreading of BPIV-3 in depending on age groups, different regions, and different months of the year. .

Effect of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) on experimentally induced diabetes mellitus in male rabbits

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 33-38

The study was conducted to investigate the effect of orally administered fenugreek on some biochemical parameters in diabetic male rabbits experimentally induced by intra peritoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate 75 mg/kg. Twenty five male local breed rabbits were divided into 5 equal groups; G1 normal control group, G2 diabetic non-herb treated, G3 normal rabbit treated with the herb. While, each of G4 and G5 were diabetic rabbits treated with 2 and 3g/day single oral dose of fenugreek for 30 consecutive days respectively. Blood sample were taken at zero day, 2 weeks and 4 weeks for estimation of serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, ALT, and AST. At the end of the experiment, animals were sacrificed in order to prepare liver tissue homogenate to calculate the level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) to explore the role of fenugreek as antioxidant herb. Results were revealed an increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, ALT, AST, and MDA level and reduced glutathione level in G2. While, oral administration of fenugreek showed a significant reduction in total lipids and serum sugar in diabetic rabbits and have no any adverse effect on the main parameters of the body, the herb play a great role as antioxidant factor as indicated by increasing GSH level and reduce MDA level..

Babesiosis of small ruminants in Sulaimani city Kurdistan – Iraq

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 39-43

Babesiosis was studied in sheep and goats in Sulaimani city, Kurdistan -Iraq from June to September 2012. A total of 160 blood samples (135 of sheep and 25 of goats) were collected from different farms. Giemsa stained blood smears were applied to study babesiosis, also ticks were collected from external animals body surfaces. Results of this study showed that Babesia species was recorded among the small ruminants as 92/160 (57.5 %), 76/135 (56.3%) of these from sheep and 16/25 (64%) of goats. Statistically there are no significant differences between sheep and goats infection by Babesia species at (P< 0.05). According to the morphological characters four Babesia species were recorded in the study which was B. ovis, B. motasi, B. foliata, and B. taylori. One species of tick Hyalomma anatolicum was seen. anatolicum Hyalomma.

The hematological and clinical changes in rabbits exposed to powder of dried leaves of (Lantana camara) under experimental conditions

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 44-49

The study was conducted on 10 local breed rabbits, 1-2 years of age, and 1- 1.5 kg body weight. Animals were divided into two equal groups. The first was the treated group which exposed to the dried powder of Lantana camara leaves mixed with the food at a dose rate of 5 g/ animal / day for three weeks, while the second group left without treatment as a control group. Clinically the study was revealed that the body temperature and body weight did not show any changes during the experiment, while the respiratory and heart rate were increased. Hematologically the bleeding time and clotting time were prolonged, the erythrocyte count, Hb concentration, and MCV values were decreased, and the MCH was increased, while the PCV, MCHC, total leucocytes count and the basophiles percentage did not showed any significant changes. The heterophiles and monocytes percentage were increased mean while the lymphocytic and eosinophil percentage were decreased during the study..

Advance techniques in traumatic reticuloperitonitis diagnosis: review

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 50-57

Traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP) is a sporadic disease of ruminants that is caused by perforation of the reticulum by ingested foreign materials; it is a common reason for abdominal surgery in cattle. The disease may appear in forms of local and acute peritonitis, local chronic peritonitis and as unspecific form Anorexia, decrease in milk production, fever, ruminal stasis or ruminal hypo motility, tachypnea, grinding of teeth, reluctance to move and stance with an arched back and abducted elbows. The diagnoses are based on clinical examination, hematological examination, and other techniques. .

Detection of bovine tuberculosis in Wasit city by the use of comparative intradermal tuberculin test and antigen rapid bovine TB Ab test

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 58-62

The study was conducted on twenty eight (28) cows in some villages in Wasit city / Iraq, scanned by using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test and antigen rapid bovine TB Ab test, to determine the morbidity rates of bovine tuberculosis (TB) and also to evaluate the efficiency of the two tests in the diagnosis of bovine TB. Post mortem examinations also were done after slaughter of animals to confirm the TB lesions. Twenty one (21) cows (75%) were positive in the tuberculin test, while (7) cows (25%) were negative. Twenty two (22) cows (78,57%) gave positive results to the antigen rapid bovine TB Ab test, and (6) cows (21,43%) gave negative results. It was noticed that most of the positive tuberculin animals were also positive to the antigen rapid bovine TB Ab test, due to the MP70 antigen present in the rapid test kit is a major component of M. bovis. On post mortem examination nineteen (19) cows (67,85%) seen had the tubercle lesions in many organs like liver (19,05%), lung (14,28%), intestine (14,28%), mesenteric lymph nodes (19,05%), retropharyngeal lymph nodes (19,05%) and mediastinal lymph nodes (14,28%). It was concluded that the use of combination of tuberculin test and antigen rapid bovine TB Ab test together gives a better results in the diagnosis of bovine TB than the use of a single test alone.

Enhancing Achilles tendon healing by using autologous bone marrow in rabbits

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 63-70

The model used in this study was (30) apparently healthy local breed male rabbits, weighing (1.5-2) kg divided into control and treated groups. All animals were anaesthetized generally by intramuscular injection mixture of Ketamine and Xylazine, then operation site was prepared surgically, in control group (left leg) about 3cm skin incision was made caudal to tibia and Achilles tendon splitting was made by used scalpel blade, treated group was subjected to the same procedure ( right leg ) then (1-2 ml) bone marrow aspirated from iliac crest of the same animal then applied to the injured tendon, skin closed routinely. Biopsies of injured tendon were harvested at 3rd, 7th, 15, 30, and 60 days post operation to show histopathological changes in tendon tissue in each group. Results indicated initiation of healing process in treated group prior to control group, in control group at 3rd day showed persist inflammatory cells associated with congestive blood vessels also at 7th day showed fibroblast proliferation with less new capillary blood vessels whereas at 15 day showed start irregular fibrous connective tissue formation, and at 30 day showed mature fibrous connective tissue formation with dense collagen fiber, while in treated group showed proliferation of fibroblast that producing collagen fibers which give rise for immature granulation tissue formation at 3rd day post operation, also large amount of granulation tissue which formed with deposition of collagen fiber at 7day whereas at 15 day showed regular fibrous connective tissue formation with contracted collagen fiber that continue to increase collagen formation at 30 day, also at 60 day showed deposition of mature fibrous connective tissue, While in control group at 60 day showed short collagen fibers attached to tendon fibers and still presence same area contain collagen fiber irregularly. According to the results of present study, aspiration of autologous bone marrow from iliac crest and it application directly on injured Achilles tendon may have a better effect in promoting healing in rabbits ..

Histopathological study of chronic livers Fascioliasis of cattle in Sulaimani abattoir

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 71-80

Liver fluke disease (fascioliasis) is an important parasitic disease may responsible for morbidity and mortality in most species of animals, like sheep, goat and cattle, as well as other domestic ruminants. The common causative agents are Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. The study aimed to detect the gross and microscopic lesions accompanied with chronic bovine liver Fascioliasis of local and Friesian cattle breeds in Sulaimani region and compared it with the same lesions in different species and breeds in other parts of the world according to the available literatures. During March to April 2013, fifty infected bovine livers of different ages were collected from Sulaimani abattoir, and examined grossly. Samples were taken from these livers parenchyma and bile ducts for histopathological examinations. The histopathological examinations illustration presence of different lesions in the liver parenchyma including, hepatocytes swelling, fatty changes, accumulation of bile pigment in bile canaliculi, congestion, neutrophils and eosinophils infiltration, abscess, telangiectasis, pericellular fibrosis, extensive fibrosis and liver cirrhosis. The lesions of bile duct ranged from infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells, portal fibrosis, bile duct hyperplasia, papillomatous projection, adenomatous hyperplasia and bile duct metaplasia. We concluded that Fascioliasis had pathological damage or destructive effect on bovine hepatobiliary system. .

Histomorphological investigations of the stomach of wild adult male Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus f. domestica) in AL-Najaf province

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 81-88

Stomach macroscopical and microscopical investigations of ten adult male wild rabbits collected from AL-Najaf city markets recorded to gives a support for future researches and clinical applications as look upon the biology of the digestive system. After rabbit's preparation the stomach recognized then the shape, position, dimensions and its relations with the other abdominal organs were record. The outer shape of stomach is taken J- like shape. Its lies in the cranial part of the abdominal cavity entirely within the rib cage, mostly to the left of the median plane. It consists of the visceral and parietal surfaces, and greater and lesser curvatures. The mean length of the greater and lesser curvatures were (22.3±0.9 cm) and (4.64±0.9 cm) respectively. Stomach connected with spleen, pancreas and colon by thin mesenteric folds. Internal surface of the stomach consist of two parts, glandular and non-glandular. The first part consists of three regions, the cardiac, fundus, and pyloric regions. The mean length of non-glandular and three glandular regions were (2.3 ± 0.38 cm), (2.28 ± 0.4 cm), (6.38 ± 0.23 cm), and (4.3 ± 0.29 cm) respectively. Non-glandular region covered by stratified squamous epithelium. The cardiac and fundus regions covered by simple columnar epithelium. The pyloric region covered by a low columnar to cuboidal epithelium. Invaginations of the glandular epithelium to forms tubular branched and coiled glands. Smooth muscle of muscularis mucosa two layers, tunica submucosa was loose connective tissue, tunica muscularis showed bundles of smooth muscle fibers arrange into internal circular, and external longitudinal layers which facing externally with loose connective tissue of adventitia..

Relationship among clinical mastitis, vitamin E and selenium in Awassi ewes

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 89-93

The study was conducted to investigate the correlation between ovine clinical mastitis with the ovine serum concentration of selenium and vitamin E. Blood and milk samples were collected from 50 ewes with clinical mastitis and another 50 healthy animals (controls), aged 1-6 years during the period from October 2012 to March 2013 from three locations at Al-Qadisiya province; Serum selenium and vitamin E concentration were measured, and microbiological examination of milk samples were done. The percentage of clinical mastitis was found (13.15%) and the Staphylococcus spp. was the dominant bacteria. The percentage of gram positive bacteria was (86.75%) which included Staphylococcus aureus (66.17%) coagulase negative staphylococci (10.29%) and Actinomyces pyogenes (10.29%) from total bacterial isolates. The percentage of gram negative bacteria was (13.23%) which included Escherichia coli (4.41%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.82%) from total bacterial isolates. Estimation of vitamin E and selenium levels in serum revealed a lower levels in mastatic ewes than in healthy ewes with significant differences at (P<0.05). Estimation of selenium and vitamin E concentration in serum revealed a lower levels in mastatic sheep in first month than in the other months with significant differences at (P<0.05)..

Role of autologous platelets rich plasma in treatment of experimentally induced Achilles tendonitis in rabbits

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 94-99

The study aimed to a clinico-histopathological evaluating the benefit of using autologous platelets rich plasma (PRP) in healing of Achilles tendonitis in rabbits. Twenty adult male rabbits were used. Five ml of blood was withdrawn from the rabbits marginal ear vein and mixed with sodium citrate for preparation of PRP. Rabbits were randomly allocated into two groups (10 of each). The first group, serve as a control group and the second group, considered as treatment group. Tendonitis was induce under the effect of general anesthesia. Lateral longitudinal incision on the skin over the Achilles tendon was made. The tendon was isolated by blunt dissection from the surrounding tissue. Tendonitis was induced by splitting of the tendon with surgical blade. The first group (treated with one ml normal saline). In contrast, the second group (treated with one ml of PRP). Both saline and PRP were injected intra-lesional after that the surgical skin wounds was re stitched in routine manner. After clinical follow-up of the treatment rabbits, certain secondary complications were happened represented by lameness, swelling and infection. Histo-pathological evaluation was performed at 8 and 16 weeks post-surgery (10 rabbits/group) (5 rabbits/period). Grossly, adhesion was noticed in most rabbits of control group. Microscopical examination reflect perfect orientation and organization of collagen fibers in treatment group in comparing with control group. Based on the results obtain from this study, PRP enhanced and promote tendon healing..

Anatomical investigations of the syrinx (voice box) of the adult male West African guinea fowl (Numida meleagris galeata ) in the AL-Najaf AL-Ashraf province

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 100-105

Morphological examination of the syrinx in male West African guinea fowl (WAGF) at the second year of their age and (1244±114 g) the mean live weight which collected randomly from centre of the AL-Najaf AL-Ashraf province for making use this study in the future studies of the physiology of system and histopathological study of respiratory disease. After bird preparation, the syrinx was identified, then, position, shape and related of syrinx with other thoracic organs of specimen was recorded. The cartilages were the main the building units of the syrinx that the hyaline type (three tracheosyringeal cartilages, two the intermediate cartilages, three bronchosyringeal cartilages and pessulus). Therefore classified as tracheabronchial type. The tracheosyringeal cartilages was ring-like shape, and intermediate cartilages and bronchosyringeal were (C) shape, while pessulus was wedge-shape and divided the syringeal cavum in two primary bronchi. pessulus partial ossified. Addition to that there were paired lateral vibrating membranes which attached with the last tracheosyringeal cartilage and first intermediate cartilages craniocaudally and medial vibrating membranes which restricted between pessulus cranially and third bronchosyringeal cartilage caudally and continued as medial bronchial walls. The interbronchial ligament connects the left and right primary bronchi at the terminal part of the medial vibrating membranes..

Comparative study on the biological effect of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek) and Lupinus termis in diabetic albino rats

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 106-112

A number of herbs are traditionally used in Sudan to treat different diseases. In the present study the therapeutic effects of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek), and Lupinus termis aqueous extracts in glucose-induced diabetic albino rats and the sub chronic toxicity of these plants were investigated. Forty two albino rats of either sex (weighing 135-250 g and aged 60 days) were used. Animals were assigned to seven equal groups (N=6); intact control and six diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by 5% glucose (2mg/kg b.w). Group (1) was administered with drinking water and assigned as control, groups 2, 3 and 4 were administered with Trigonella foenum aqueous extract (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg b.w, respectively) and groups 5, 6 and 7 were administered with Lupinus termis aqueous extract (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg b.w, respectively). Blood samples were obtained to assess blood glucose level, α-amylase, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides concentrations. In treated diabetic rats, blood glucose level markedly decreased to the normal range. Reduction in cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL was also observed. Reduction of α-amylase concentration was shown with a low dose (200 mg/kg b.w.) of the extracts of both plants. The present studied plants clearly demonstrate the non-toxic nature and safety profile. The combined history human use of these plants and the data from the current study support the safe use of these plants. It can be concluded that Trigonella foenum graecum seed and Lupinus termis fruit aqueous extract have anti-hyperglycemic effect by affecting both blood glucose level and α-amylase. Trigonella foenum graecum has higher hypoglycemic than Lupinus termis..

The anti-hyperglycemic effect of Solenostemma argel compared with Glibenclamide

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 113-117

The current study aimed to compare the anti-hyperglycemic effect of Solenostemma argel, which widely used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Sudan, with the antidiabetic drug (Glibenclamide). Twenty four albino rats were used in this experiment. Rats were assigned to 4 groups (N=6). All groups were fasted for 18 hrs. Group (1) was administered with glibenclamide (10 mg/kg b.w.) and served as control, groups (2, 3, and) were orally administered with aqueous extract of Solenostemma argel leaves and bark (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg b.w.), respectively, after loading with 5% glucose (2 mg/kg b.w). Blood samples were obtained to assess blood glucose, lipid profile and α-amylase concentrations. Sub chronic toxicity of Solenostemma argel has been evaluated which clearly demonstrated the non-toxic nature and safety profile. Obtained results indicated that Solenostemma argel aqueous extract significantly decreased blood glucose level in treated group received 800 mg/kg b.w. compared with glibenclamide treated group. At the dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. of Solenostemma argel aqueous extract, the activity of α-amylase decreased in comparison with that treated with glibenclamide and registered low concentrations of cholesterol and HDL as well. In conclusion, both blood glucose level and α-amylase activity can be ameliorated in diabetic rats by administration of Solenostemma argel aqueous extract. However, in prospective study more investigation has should to be carried out to explain the mechanism of Solenostemma argel in hypoglycemic animals..

Detection of gastrointestinal parasite infection of sheep and goats in Diyala Province-Iraq

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 118-123

This study has been conducted to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasite infection in sheep and goat in 4 districts of Diyala province in Iraq. From December 2012 to June 2013, a total of 220 fecal samples were collected (143 from sheep and77 from goats). Of the total samples examined, 187 (85.0%) were found positive for gastrointestinal parasites. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasite infection were higher (86.71%) in sheep when compared to goats (81.81%). Young age group showed higher (P<0.05) prevalence of infection when compared to adults in both sheep and goats. Parasites identified in this study in both species included: Protozoa, Eimeria spp. (86.09%); Nematode, Strongyle type of eggs (72.72%), Strongyloides spp. (67.37%) and Cestodes, Monezia spp. (59.89%). Eight Eimeria species were identified; E. ahsat (25.62%), E. crandallis (21.87%), E. granulosa (16.15%), E. parva (14.37%), E. intricate (13.75%), E. pallida (9.94%), E. oviniodalis (6.21%) and E. faurei (3.73%). E. ahsat (25.62%), E. crandallis (21.87%), E. granulosa (16.15%), E. parva (14.37%), E. intricate (13.75%), E. pallida (9.94%), E. oviniodalis (6.21%), E. faurei (3.73%)

The effect of aqueous extract of green tea (Camellia sinensis) on liver enzymes of experimentally induced diabetes mellitus in mature female rabbits

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 124-128

This study was carried out to find the effect of aqueous extract of green tea on liver enzymes in alloxan induced diabetic adult female rabbits. Thirty five female rabbits weighted 1-1.5 kg were divided into five groups and treated for 8 weeks as follows. Group 1: intact rabbits were drenched with 2ml of drinking water for 8 weeks as control group. Group 2 (T1): diabetic rabbits were drenched with 2ml of drinking water as placebo. Group 3 (T2): Diabetic rabbits were drenched with single daily dose of green tea extract (200mg/kg body weight). Group 4 (T3): Diabetic rabbits were daily injected with insulin (3 I.U subcutaneous) for 8 weeks. Group 5 (T4): intact rabbits were drenched with single daily dose of green tea (200mg/kg body weight). At the end of experiment the blood samples were taken by cardiac puncture, the blood serum was separated to measure liver enzymes. The results revealed that significantly decreased (p< 0.05) was observed in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in all treated groups, while increased significantly in diabetic group. This study concluded that aqueous extract of green tea can act as hepatoprotective agent..

In vitro study on H9 avian influenza cytopathic effect in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf /Iraq

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 129-136

During a period extending from July 2012 to July 2013, a total of 251 avian cases admitted for medically care unit in the veterinary hospital in Al-Najaf governorate were examined and involved in this study. The study was applied to determine risk factors affecting by avian influenza virus infection among poultry flocks in Al-Najaf-Iraq. The study revealed that poultry flocks had a considerable risk of infection with H9 subtypes according to the PCR assay. Primarily, infected birds were investigated by rapid test for the detection of type A of influenza viral antigen, based on monoclonal antibodies. Identification was also confirmed by PCR assay for the amplification of a specific region within the H9 genome. Propagation and adaptation of 5 strong positive H9 isolates on rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD) and chick embryo fibroblast was done by cell culture techniques, for the demonstration of specific type of cytopathic effect (CPE) caused by these isolates. The observation of specific H9 cytopathic effect was also confirmed by indirect immunoflourescent antibody technique. The two types of cells involved different degrees of sensitivity for supporting the growth of H9 virus; RD cell line was sensitive enough to support the growth of the virus, followed by chick embryo fibroblast cells. The halve tissue culture infective dose(TCID50) of the virus was elevated with the subsequent passages till reach its peak (108 TCID50/0.1ml) during 6th passage on RD cells and 105 TCID50 /0.1ml during 7th passage on chick embryo cells, Our results indicated that H9 type is dominant in Najaf area, RD cell line is typical for culturing the virus, the addition of trypsin is very helpful for the cultivation of H9 influenza virus. Vaccination and increasing workers knowledge could prevent future infections..

Comparison of the anesthetic effect of paracetamol, tramadol, ketamine, xylazine, combination in three anesthetic protocols by using two different administration routes in sheep

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 137-145

The present study was aimed to compare the efficacy of using three anesthetics protocols of sheep anesthesia by combination of Ketamine (K), Paracetamol (P), Tramadol (T), and Xylazine (X), giving by IV or IM routes. Fifteen healthy adult local breed sheep of both sexes weighing (27.4±2.46) kg and aged (12-14 months) were used and divided into three equal groups. Animals were accommodated in the same environmental conditions. G1 was giving K4 T2 P10 X0.05 by IV route, G2 giving K10 T2 P10 X1 mg/kg by IM route and G3 giving K20 T4 P10 X2.5 mg/kg by IM route. The HR, RR, RT, muscle relaxation, limb, and flank analgesia, and rumen movement were taken before administration of anesthesia and consider as the control reading, then were taken at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45 and 60 minutes or till the end of anesthesia. In G1 the induction time, the surgical anesthesia, and the total recovery time were become 50.6 s, 23 m, and 9.4 m respectively. The HR, RR, and RT were increased, the muscle relaxation, and analgesia were moderate. In G2 the induction time, the surgical anesthesia, and the total recovery time were 5, 36, and 5.6 m, respectively. The HR and RR were decreased, and the RT was increased. The muscle relaxation was deep, analgesia was moderate for 10 minutes. In G3 the induction time, the surgical anesthesia, and the total recovery time were 3.6, 73.4, and 7 m respectively. The HR started stable, then after 15 minutes decreased sharply, The RR was irregular, with apnea, the RT was increased, the muscle relaxation was deep for 35 minutes, and the analgesia was deep for 45 minutes.
In conclusion; The (K), (P), (T), and (X) combination as anesthetic protocol is seen suitable for sheep anesthesia. The surgical anesthesia, and the depth of analgesia are increased with the increase of ketamine and xylazine doses, and the addition of tramadol, and paracetamol, enhance the quality of anesthesia and make the induction and recovery are good. The protocol of G2 is seen the best between the three protocols used in this experiment. The protocol of G3 is seen superior in analgesia and duration of surgical anesthesia but with respiratory depression

The percutaneous effect of black seed (Nigella sativa) oil as external topical treatment on bone healing in rabbits

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 146-154

This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of black seed oil extraction as external topical treatment on bone healing. Twenty domestic rabbits were used; the animals were divided into two equal groups. Radius bone of both forelimbs were chosen for making a defect (2mm cavitation using electrical drill) in the middle shaft, the animals of control group (CG) were leaved to heal normally, while the animals of treated group (TG) were treated by rubbing the operated limb by oil extraction of black seed twice a day. The results of this study confirmed that N. sativa provided important factors which contributed in enhancement the healing process of the bone defect. However, the X-ray and histopathology section of the bone of the treated group showed enhancement of bone healing in: deposition, resorption, angiogenesis and remodeling stages, when compared to the control group. In conclusion the using of oil extract of N. sativa as percutaneous therapy enhances bone healing by enhancing different processes of cell migration and differentiation, extracellular matrix formation and organization towards calcification..