Print ISSN: 1818-5746

Online ISSN: 2313-4429

Volume 16, Issue 2

Volume 16, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2017, Page 1-172

Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular characterization for some virulence factors of Proteus Mirabilis isolated from patients in Al-Qadisiyah Province/ Iraq

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 1-7

Total of 64 Samples clinical isolates were collected from various sources included urine, ear external swab, wounds swab, burns swab, high cervical and endometrium cervical swab, which was taken from (in-patients) and (out-patients) in Maternal, and General Teaching Hospital in AL-Diwaniya city during the period from 1/3/2015 till 30/9/2015. The resistance of bacterial isolates to 12 different antibiotics was tested and isolates showed different resistance to anti-βata Lactam including penicillin and Amoxicillin/ Clavulanic acid by (100%), cefotaxime by (86%), and Cephalexin by (90.62%), Imipenem by (18.75%), and Meropenem by (15.62%). Some of the virulence factors have been studied genetically (20 isolates), in terms of the genetic aspect, five genes were obtained for virulence factors and at varying rates, as the urease enzyme ureC, fimbriae formation mrpA, flagella flaA, hemolysin enzyme hpmA and biofilm formation luxS (60, 40,100, 45, 55) % , respectively.

Molecular detection of invA, ssaP in Salmonella typhimurium isolated from chicken in Al-Qadisiyah Province

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 8-13

Salmonella is considered the most important cause of foodborne diseases. Identification of Salmonella typhimurium evaluated using bacteriological assay followed by PCR technique. In this study, 40 intestinal content specimens of poultry were collected randomly from different farms of Al-Qadisiyah province. Outs of 40 samples obtained, 14 isolates (35 %) were detected as Salmonella typhimurium according to conventional bacteriological characteristics, the Vitek 2 system for identification and molecular assays. Two sets of primers were designed for detecting invA and ssaP genes. These genes potent the virulence of Salmonella typhimurium. The primers were made in this study by using NCBIGenBank and design online. The primers were made by (Bioneer) company, Korea. Molecular assay of the isolates gives away specific PCR products of 677bp for the invA gene and 314bp for ssaP gene. The invA genes were amplified in 11 (78.5%) out of 14 isolates of Salmonella typhimurium, while ssaP genes were amplified in 10 (71.4%) out of 14 isolates of Salmonella typhimurium. The result of the study confirms the ability of these specific primers for detection of salmonella typhimurium in samples of chicken as well as the rapidly and sensitivity of the PCR method as a good tool for bacteriological identification.

Effect the size of follicles and season on levels of some biochemical parameters in follicular fluid of Iraqi female one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 14-17

The aimed of the current research to compare a biochemical constituent in ovarian follicular fluids of Iraqi one-humped she-camels (Camelus dromedarius) during the autumn, winter and spring in different follicles size of the ovaries. Classified in to, follicles sized 2-5 mm considered as small follicles (SF), 5–9 mm considered as medium follicles (MF) and 10–19 mm considered as large follicles (LF) were harvested from 107 adult female camels from the slaughterhouse. A Study was conducted during the period from 1/10/2016 to 1/7/2017. Results showed that there was decreased significantly (P<0.05) in total protein in (LF) in spring and in (SF) in autumn when comparative with other seasons, also decreased in (SF) on spring while increased significantly (P<0.05) in (SF) on winter when comparative with other follicles size. Cholesterol increased significantly (P<0.01) in (SF) on spring and in (LF) on winter, while decreased in (MF) on autumn when comparative with other seasons, also increased in (SF) on spring and in (LF) on winter when comparative with other follicles size. Glucose increased significantly (P<0.05) in (SF) and in (MF) but decreased in (LF) on winter when comparative with other seasons, while increased significantly (P<0.05) in (SF) on winter, also increased in (LF) on autumn when comparative with another size of follicles. Results showed that there were significant differences (P<0.01) and (P˂0.05), in total protein, cholesterol, and glucose in different size follicles and in different seasons (autumn, winter, and spring) of a study.

Detection the presence of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus in the bacterial DNA extracts of Culex pipiens intestine using polymerase chain reaction

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 18-21

Mosquitoes are tiny creatures but could do a lot of damages to the people life and especially by transmitting dangerous diseases such as dengue fever transported by Aedes aegypti. The control of these bugs is hostorically challenging and difficult. This difficulty increases after the emerging problems of insecticide resistance. The gut flora(GF) in different animals has been detected to place an important role on the physiology of the intestine. This study was conducted to discover if the Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a member of the GF of the mosquitoes. B. bacteriovorus is a bacterium that has been found in the intestine of animals and healthy and patient humans but not in mosquitoes. Seventy adult mosquitos of Culex pipiens were used for extraction of the bacterial DNA from their intestine. The 70 mosquitoes were assigned randomly to 7 groups, 10 mosquitoes for each group to pool the amount of DNA extracted. Each mosquito was dissected under the microscope to isolate the intestine and use it later for DNA extraction. After the DNA had been extracted using a phenol/chloroform method, I subjected the extracted DNA to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the presence of this bacterium among the bacteria of the intestine using the following specific primers: Bd529F (5’-GGTAAGACGAGGGATCCT-3’) and Bd1007R (5’-TCTTCCAGTACATGTCAAG-3’) that amplify a 481-bp of the 16S rRNA gene. By the amplification that happened in all 7 groups, the result indicates the presence of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus in the intestine of the Culex pipiens. Because this bacterium preys on Gram-negative bacteria, our results help to use this bacterium to fight insecticide resistance that caused by the degradation of these chemicals by gram-negative bacteria in the ingestion of these mosquitoes.

Detection and identification of the extended- spectrum β-lactamases (bla SHV and bla CTX –M) Klebsiella pneumonia by PCR technique

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 22-28

Klebsiella pneumonia was the most important nosocomial infections pathogen. It was causing several morbidity and mortality in sick animals and human. Its identification and detection performed by usage of conventional cultural characters, biochemical tests and Polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR). One hundred clinical samples were divided into (50) samples of sheep suffering from pneumonia and (50) samples of a human with UTI, collected from different regions of Al-Diwaniyah city. Thirty-four (68%) sheep samples were positive for K. pneumonia identification, while 38 (76%) urine samples of a human with UTI cases gave K. pneumoniae isolates. The results show only (72) isolates were identified by PCR technique. Thirty isolates of human samples (78.9%) were positive for detection of bla CTX-M ESBLs, while its detection did not determine in sheep. Sixty-three isolates from total isolates were positive to detection of bla SHV, these positive isolates divided into 53 isolates for human and 28 sheep. Molecular characterization of ESBL provides information about the prevalence of ESBL producing K. pneumoniae in Al-Diwaniyah. The aim of this study was the determination of CTX-M and SHV genes presence in extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Seroprevalence of brucellosis and toxoplasmosis in camels of Wasit Province, Iraq

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 29-37

Background: toxoplasmosis and brucellosis are zoonotic diseases, more added a major public health is worldwide because have high distribution in livestock. Which affects social and economic development in developing countries. Objectives: The aim of this study research was to determine the occurrence of the seroprevalence toxoplasmosis and brucellosis in camels in Waist provinces of Iraq from November 2016 to April 2017. Materials and Methods: Overall (237) blood samples collected of animals randomly were from both sex in different herds of animals and diagnosis by A Latex agglutination test (LAT), Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and indirect (ELISA). Results: An overall prevalence of T. gondii infestation were recorded, the positive sample with LAT test was 76 (32.06%) from all sample, the results of ELISA was shown in different groups 24.14% (7), 30.55% (11), 26.67% (8), 20% (8), 20% (15), 25.9% (7) from group1 to 6 respectively, while in age groups ELISA results appeared 10.71% (6) , 64.29% (36), 25% (14) respectively, the seroprevalence in females 50 (89.18 %) and positive in males 6 (10.72%). While brucellosis RBPT 51 samples positive and 186 sample negative, among 51 positive by RBPT confirmed by ELISA 39 sample positive and 198 negative, This positive sample divided in to 6 livestock groups, from 1 to 6 groups (5) 17.25%, (4) 11.10%, (8) 20%, (7) 17.5%, (10) 13.4%, (5) 18.5%, respectively with final percentage 16.29% while the negative result percentage 83.71%, high seroprevalence was recorded in moderate age (24) 10.12 % and the older than 10 years age (9) 3.79% while the less percentage in group 1under 5 years of age (9) 2.53 %, while the seroprevalence recorded a higher percentage in females (1) 97.43 % and less recorded in male (1) 2.57%.The two tests were used ELISA 56 positive samples (23.62%) and 181(76.28%) negative samples. However, 76 (32.06%) positive by LAT test and 161(67.94%) negative. Statically in (P>0.05), non-significant was obtained in infection between groups of camels in this study and between the sex in all camels groups. Conclusions: high seroprevalence in studied camels indicated the importance of these animals as the main source of human infection. The widespread infection of other livestock. Clinical signs alone are not sufficient for diagnosis. Difficulties can arise in chronic camel infection.

Phylogenetic tree analysis of Entamoeba species isolated from goats

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 38-44

The present study was designed to species typing of parasite Entamoeba spp from goats by using PCR technique and phylogenetic tree analysis. The PCR technique was conducted for using specific primers were designed for 18S rRNA gene of Entamoeba spp. In this study, the sequence alignment analysis and phylogenetic tree analysis of Unweighted Pair Group method with Arithmetic were performed by using phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analysis (MEGA 6.0 edition computer software) that analysis of 590bp for ribosomal 18S rRNA gene. Our isolates submitted to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI-GenBank) for getting accession number and then we were gotten (10) accession number for goat isolates. Entamoeba spp were detected in (10/50) (20%) of feces samples that collected from goat by PCR. Results of the phylogenetic tree analysis show that most isolates of Entamoeba spp. were closed related to NCBI-Blast Entamoeba bovis 18S ribosomal RNA gene (FN666250.1) with (80%) as an accession number (MF568371, MF568372, MF568373, MF568374, MF568375, MF568377, MF568378, and MF568380), whereas other NCBI- Blast Entamoeba spp. has been shown more related to Entamoeba histolytica isolate 18S ribosomal RNA gene (GQ423749.1) with (20%) as (MF568376 and MF568379). This study is first recording used of molecular phylogeny to Entamoeba spp. in goat at the first time in Iraq.

Evaluation of the effect of partial and total replacement of Bekia seeds (Vicia Sativa) on the soybean meal in the cross breed Friesian dairy cows ration on the production of milk and its components, blood physiological and biochemical parameters

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 45-53

Three non-pregnant multiparous cross-breed Friesian dairy cows were used in this study at same live weights and milk production at cow farm of Technical Agricultural College , Mosul.T he cows were placed in individual pens and fed periodically by using Latin square design (3×3) with three periods (30days/period) on three iso-nitrogen and iso-caloric experimental rations but different in the percentage of bekia seeds (0, 3 and 6%). The results revealed that crude protein and metabolize energy intake, normal and adjusted milk yield, milk fat percentage, quantities of milk fat, protein and lactose were increased significantly (P≤0.05) in 3rd treatment (6% bekia seeds) as compared to those in the 1st treatment ( 0% bekia seeds). While the results indicated that using bekia seeds on three experimental treatments have no significant effect on feed intake of concentrate and straw, total feed intake, percentages of milk protein , lactose ,solid not fat and total solid ,physiological characters such as red and white cell counts, hemoglobin , packed cell volume, total protein, globulin ,albumin, triglycerides, cholesterol ,urea. blood glucose, and concentrations of AST, ALT and ALP enzymes. It could be concluded that using bekia seed to totally substitute the soybean meal in the ration of dairy cows was improved milk production and fat percentage of milk and without a negative effect on all studied physiological blood parameters.

Effect of supplementation of red grape pomace in ration on some blood traits of broiler

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 54-60

This study was conducted in the animal field of the Veterinary Medicine College / University of Al-Qadisiyah., The trial lasted 42 days between 2016/10/19 - 2016/11/29 for the purpose of knowing the effect of adding grape pomace (GP) to the ration on some blood characteristics of broilers. In the study, 150 chicks (Ross-308) were randomized to three groups (50 chicks) for each group (25 replicates). The first group was the control treatment (G1) that was given no food additive. The second group was (G2) and was given 25 g of GP / kg of ration along experiment duration. The third treatment (G3) was given 50 g GP / kg of ration throughout the experiment period. The results showed decreases in the level of cholesterol both in G2 and G3 compared to G1 (P≤ 0.05). There was also a significant improvement in the level of triglycerides in G3 (P≤ 0.05) at age 21day, while there was a significant improvement in these lipids in G2 and G3 (P≤ 0.05) at age 42 day. The results showed a significant decrease (P≤ 0.05) in the LDL of G2 and G3 at 21 days of age plus a significant decrease in G3 at 42 days of age. The results also showed a significant increase (P≤ 0.05) in the HDL of G2. G3 overran G1 and G1+ G2 at the age of 21 and 42 days respectively. The results revealed a significant decrease (P≤ 0.05) in glucose level of G3 at age 21 days and 42 days. G2 showed a significant difference at age 21 days and no significant difference at age 42. In conclusion, the grape pomace in ( 2.5% or 5% ) of broiler ration leads to improve the performance traits, health benefits and some of the blood parameters in broilers, the traits that we used are considered as health indicators, growth promoters, production and performance effectors.

Nephroprotective roles of local licorice, peppermint extracts and their mixture on gentamicin-induced renal insufficiency in Wistar albino rats

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 61-68

Aminoglycosides (AGs) such as gentamicin (gen) are considered as the optimum therapy for many infections and diseases. Unfortunately, AGs treatment has been linked to acute kidney injury that is also referred to as nephrotoxicity. In the current study, we sought to explore the protective roles of peppermint (pep) and licorice (Lic) extracts as well as their mixture on gen-induced nephrotoxicity. Forty male and female Wistar albino rats were divided into 5 experimental groups: C- was administered with 2 ml of normal saline as a single daily dose intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 14 d. C+ was administered with once-daily i.p. injections of 100 mg/kg BW gen for 8 d. T1 group was administered once-daily i.p. of gen (100mg/kg BW) for 8 d. and Lic ethanolic extract (EE) (100mg/kg BW) every 12 hr for 14 d. T2 was administered once-daily i.p. of gen for 8 d. and pep EE (100mg/kg BW) every 12 hr for 14 d. T3 was administered once-daily i.p. of gen for 8 d. in addition to lic and pep EE mixture (100mg/kg BW) every 12 hr for 14 d. At the end of the study, all rats were anesthetized and trunk blood collected to study renal injury parameters. Those include serum enzymes such as AST, ALT, and ALP; kidney damage markers including urea, creatinine, and total protein; serum electrolytes including Cl, K, and Na levels as well as other renal function markers such as Glutathione peroxidase (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). All the parameters that indicated the nephrotoxicity occurrence in the C+ group in response to gen were found to be highly improved in most of the studied aspects in T1, T2, and T3. We found that Lic and pep extracts improve renal injury, kidney damage, and renal function markers opposed to gentamicin treatment. In conclusion, our study suggests prescribing those remedies to AGs receiving patients.

Acumulative effect of sodium nitrate on some parameters of broiler chickens

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 69-76

This study aims to clarify the accumulative effects of Sodium Nitrate at the level of 200 mg/lit that added to drinking water on broiler chicks. 120 of one-day-old broiler chicks (Hubbard Classic) were used. They were divided into two equal groups using 3 replicates 20 chicks for each replicate in 49 days. Group one (control) received just plain tap water. Group two received 200 mg/lit Sodium Nitrate. Weights were taken weekly. Feed conversion ratio, dressing percentage, Liver weight, humoral immunity against Newcastle disease and liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured a couple of times during the experiment. These two tests were done at 35 and 49 days old. At the end of the experimental period (7 weeks old), liver and bursa of Fabricius were removed after slaughter for histological examination. Results show no significant differences in feed conversion ratio and dressing percentage in both times. Weekly body weight of sodium nitrate group was significantly decreased at (p≤0.05) in the sixth and seventh weeks. A rate of liver weights and antibody titers of the second sets significantly decreased (p≤0.05) comparing with the control group at the 35 days test. The levels antibody titers, AST and ALT of sodium nitrate group are significantly higher in 49 days old broiler chickens comparing with the 35 days old. On the other hand, ALT of the second sets is significantly higher (p>0.05) comparing with the control group at the 49 days test. Sodium Nitrate led to numerous histological lesions in liver and bursa of Fabricius in 49 days old broiler chickens. In brief, Sodium nitrate consumption has a negative correlation with body weights, liver enzymes, and histological change.

Gross investigation and histological structure of abdominal aorta in local rabbits (Oryctylagus conniculus)

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 77-84

In the current study, fifteen rabbits from both sexes have been used to identify the anatomical and histological structure of abdominal aorta. Ten rabbits used for anatomical study. The celiac artery was a first branch of the abdominal aorta (A.A.) and then followed by the cranial mesenteric artery, right and left renal arteries, lumbar artery, caudal mesenteric artery and finally, it gives off two common iliac trunks. The splenic artery was the larger branch of the celiac artery and the cranial mesenteric artery was the greater branches of A.A. of rabbits. The lumber branches were very clear and a raised from the ventral aspect of A.A. There were numerous of jujenal arteries arises from a cranial mesenteric artery and the testicular or ovarian arteries sometimes originated above or below caudal mesenteric artery. Five rabbits used for a histological study of the abdominal aorta of three regions at the (celiac artery. renal artery. and common iliac artery). The abdominal aorta has consisted of three layers from internal to external tunica intima, T. media, and T. adventitia. The intima consists of a single layer of endothelial cells and it's the thinnest layer while T. media composed of numerous elastic laminae in a circular arrangement and it's the thickest layer finally T. adventitia was the outermost layer consist of smooth muscle fibers, collagen fibers, few elastic fibers, and vasa vasorum. The aim of this study to exposure the normal appearance of abdominal aorta by used the using corrosion cast & latex techniques and histological studies.

Seroprevalence of bluetongue virus IgG-antibodies in cattle in some Iraqi Provinces, using of a competitive-ELISA

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 85-91

This study was performed to detect seroprevalence of BTV IgG-antibodies in apparently healthy cattle in four provinces in Iraq. An overall 468 serum samples were collected during a period of April / 2016 to May / 2017 and examined by using a competitive-ELISA. The total result revealed that 28.42% of cattle were seropositive for BTV infections. Highest seroprevalence was reported in provinces of Dhi-Qar (35.04%) and Al-Qadisiyah (30.77%), while, the lowest was in Babylon (23.08%) and Wasit (24.79%). Among breed, no statistical differences (P£0.05) were detected between pure-breed (33.8%) and cross-breed (32.67%), which appeared with a high rate for seroprevalence compared to indigenous-breed (18.49%), P>0.05. In addition, a significant increase in the prevalence of BTV-antibodies was showed in a cattle group of (>5) years (55.17%), followed by (>3-5) years (40.38%), and (1-3) years (7.61%) groups, (P>0.05). Regarding gender, females were testified, relatively, an exposure rate for BTV (30.03%) more than males (23.48%), (P>0.05).

Effects of bypass proteins on growth performance, kidneys and liver functions, rumen fermentation and meat amino acid analysis in male lambs

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 92-98

An experiment was carried out in the College of Veterinary Medicine; the University of Baghdad to investigate the effect of feeding formaldehyde treated meal on body weight gain, rumen fermentation, and some blood traits in local lambs. Twenty four lambs with body weight ranged from 20 to 23 kg and aged about 3 to 4 months were selected and divided randomly into two groups of twelve each (body weight was considered). These animals fed daily concentrate diet (3% of their body weight) and 0.5 kg of alfalfa hay, in addition to freely, graze for 2-3 hours/ day. Results showed highly (p ≤ 0.05) a significant difference in the body weight gain (24.12 ± 1.01 kg) and weight of wool fleece, testis (298.00± 23.09 g) and kidneys (195.00± 8.66 g) between groups of lambs fed bypass protein compared with control group. Also, animals fed treated meal had higher (p ≤ 0.05) significantly in the meat content of crude protein (17.42 ±0.31), digestibility(57.19 ± 2.58 ) and alkaline phosphatase enzyme(ALP) compared with control group, while there are no differences in amino acids in the meat between groups of lambs. The results showed significant differences appeared in serum total protein and blood urea. In addition, no significant differences appeared in rumen fermentation parameters except rumen Ammonia-N. In conclusions: the bypass proteins technology may improve the production performance in local lambs. Therefore the bypass meal can be added to the diet of lambs for fattening. It had a positive effect on growth and fat composition of meat.

Detection of some heavy metals in poultry meats from some sources of meat and poultry rations

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 99-104

The present study was performed to detect the concentration of the toxic heavy metals (lead Pb, cadmium Cd, arsenic As and mercury Hg) in meat and rations of broiler chickens, and their effect on animals and human public health. Seventy samples were collected {40 samples of broiler chickens highly demined by the consumers in Al-Diwaniyah markets, these samples included: 10 samples of each of the Brazilian frozen chicken (Al-kafeel), Turkish frozen chicken (Barakat Al-kadhimian), Iranian frozen chicken (Al-mahdi) and broiler chicken from local breeding, also 30 samples from the poultry final rations highly bought by breeder of chicken in the province which include 10 samples from each of the Al-kadra, Al-waha ratios and ratio which locally manufactured in the Al-Diwaniyah factory}. The thighs and breast muscles of the chicken samples were then separated from the chicken body, while the edible offal (liver and gizzard) for these samples collected from the same sources. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (England origin) were used to estimate the heavy metals residues. The results showed a significant variances (p≤0.05) for comparative means in the concentrations of the studied heavy metals (Pb, Cd, As and Hg) among examined organs and muscles, generally, the highest concentration was detected in the liver followed by gizzard, then thigh muscle and breast muscle in all examined samples, though, the concentrations stay under permissible standardization limits which recorded by WHO/FAO, European, Gulf Standardization Organization (GSO) and Egyptian organization for standardization and quality control (EOS). In the ratios, the highest concentrations recorded were in locally manufactured ratio followed by Al-Kadra, then Al-Waha ratio, the means also remained under standardization permissible limits allowed by the National research council (NRC) to mineral tolerance in animals feed.

Microscopic and biometric investigations of the testes in adult ram and adult buck in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf Province

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 105-110

Microscopic and biometric exploration of the testis in ten of the healthy mature rams and buck choose from AL-Najaf slaughterhouse. Which anticipation to support the future studies and clinical purposes of the biology of the reproductive system. Testicular histological technique civilized then. Microstructures, histodimentions, were recorded then discussed between two target species. Testicular surrounded by a thick sheet of dense irregular connective tissue, tunica albuginea. The last secured by a visceral layer of the tunica vaginalis. The mean thickness in these tunics of an adult ram and buck differed significantly (p≤0.05). The parenchyma was subdivided into lobules by septae extend from mediastinum testis toward tunica albuginea. Each lobule of the two target species contains tortuous seminiferous tubule. Interstitial connective tissue surrounds each tubule contain blood vessels, fibroblasts loose connective tissue cells, and Leydig cells. The mean number, the diameter of Leydig cells and their nuclei in microscopic fields in ram and buck differed significantly (p≤0.05). Sertoli cells pyramidal shaped with ovoid nuclei mean diameter of Sertoli cells in ram and buck differed significantly (P≤0.05). Spermatogonia located near the basal membrane, the Mean diameter of Spermatogonia, in ram and buck differed significantly (p≤0.05). Large primary spermatocytes with largely rounded nuclei with coarse clumps of chromatin mean diameter in two species differed significantly (p≤0.05). Secondary spermatocytes smaller than primary. Small spermatids were rounded. Mature one characterized to elongate. Seminiferous tubule continuous as straight tubules with rete testis tubules lined by simple squamous epithelium. The later end with ductuli efferentes lined with tall ciliated columnar epithelium. Which continued into ductus epididymis lined with ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium.

Sequencing characterization of housekeeping genes among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from burn patients

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 111-119

Burn wound infections are one of the most important impairments that occur in the acute period following injury and colonization by the pathogenic agents, including gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and yeasts. The study included 210 clinical swab samples have been collected from burn- wound patients and cultured on blood agar, MacConkey agar and Eosin methylene blue agar, the period from 1/3/2016 to 30/8/2016 at different hospitals in Baghdad city. By microscopic characterizations, morphological and biochemical reactions, the results showed that 42 (37.5 %) isolates belong to Klebsiella pneumoniae. The analysis of (10) clinical origin of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates by multilocus sequence typing show the relationship between the local and global isolates which belonged to 7 housekeeping genes (rpoB;beta-subunit of RNA polymerase, gapA; glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, mdh; malate dehydrogenase, pgi; phosphoglucose isomerase, phoE; phosphorine E, infB; translation initiation factor 2, tonB; periplasmic energy transducer). The present study the results showed the 10 isolates of K. pneumoniae were identified into different sequence type (ST): ST 14 and 15 for (IQK1, IQK2, IQK3, IQK4, IQK5, IQK6 and IQK7), ST 266, 54, 709, 728 and 1177 for (IQK8 and IQK9) and ST 665, 975 and 2149 for (IQK10). In addition, the result showed 100% identities with previously reported genes. There was no information on the sequence type (ST) (an allelic profile) of K. pneumoniae in Iraq. According to the results of the present study, the most occurrence clones found in Baghdad hospitals were endemic ST14 and 15, which accounted for 70% of the isolates (n=10). The presence of the ST14 and 15 clones in Iraq which came closer to global (14 and 15 STs) clones might be indicating intercontinental transmission because these clones were added to the list of the strains that isolated from different countries.

Effect of long-term administration of Deca-Durabolin on reproductive organs of male rats

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 120-125

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of high doses of Deca-Durabolin abusing on reproductive tissue in male rats. Sixteen male rats were randomly divided into control and Deca-Durabolin group injected with 15mg/kg BW. Twice weekly for 10 weeks. Histopathological changes with Haematoxylin & Eosin stain showed the testicular lesion in the caput epididymis shows severe destruction of basement epithelial lining, with severe degeneration, necrotic and hyaline degeneration, tubules with severe loss of sperm, caput epididymal tubules cystic digestion of tubules with degeneration & necrosis of spermatid (severe destruction of epididymal parenchyma), with severe cystic distension of epididymal tubules with severe hyalinization of spermatid resulting in narrowing of tubular tissue, as well as their is proliferation interstitial of fibers connective tissue with slight cellular filtrated together with loss of spermatid in the tubules that appear empty with cystic tubular distention, the epithelial hyperplasia showing of some epididymal duct tubules that show papillary growth in the lumen together with moderate fibrosis in the interstitial tissues, although some epidermis shows empty duct with sperm degeneration, in addition to fibrous connective tissue proliferation in the interstitial tissue, variable degree of tubular destruction together with loss of spermatid and evidence of epididymal tubular distortion, different degree of tubules destruction with loss of spermatid with evidence of epididymal tubules distraction. In conclusion, the present study revealed that the abusing of Deca-Durabolin cause serious pathological changes in reproductive organs, thus affected fertility. finally, the anabolic steroid hormone has several disadvantages should be not used androgen replacement therapy at the high dose as well as prevent using as muscle building in athletics sports.

Moniezia benedeni in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Iraq

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 126-130

The purpose of the herein study was to explore the infestation prevalence of the gastrointestinal helminths that affect Iraqi camels. For such reason, intestines from 120 camels obtained that were directly searched for the occurrence of such infestation. Among all samples, 15(12.5%) were recorded infected with Moniezia benedeni. 48 and 72 camels examined in Al-Diwaniyah and Najaf abattoir from September to December 2012, which have Moniezia benedeni 8.3% and 15.2% respectively. First and second age groups (G1, G2) showed a rate of infection at 12.5% and 11.5%, while the third group (G3) was 13%. Female appears highly infection rate than male (13.6%, 9.4%). A number of isolated Moniezia benedeni were 1-6, with range 2.6 cestodes per infected camel. Measurement of Moniezia benedeni was 48.9lenght and 2.76 cm width.

Molecular detection of some bacteria from slaughtered sheep and cows in Basrah Province

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 131-136

The present study was undertaken to charge the microbial consignment of uncooked meat samples collected from the slaughtered animals of Basrah abattoir. In this study fifty raw meat samples (25 meat Cow and 25 meat Sheep). In the present study, the pathogenic bacteria were identified as Enterococcus faecalis and Clostridium perfringens by 16S rDNA. This has a specific suggestion beginning the Public Health point of sight. The result designates considerable attendance of microbial contaminants in the meat where a shortage of correct hygiene in the slaughtered. The specimen (2) were diagnosed by amplifying universal primer of 16SrDNA. Sequence information is analyzed by (NCBI) program. Sequence results showed the dominance of Enterococcus faecalis and Clostridium perfringens.

Molecular survey and phylogeny of Anaplasma Ovis in small ruminants in Al-Qadisiyah Province, Iraq

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 137-142

Anaplasma ovis is a one of an important group of the tick-borne pathogen and an obligate intraerythrocytic bacterium, which infects sheep and goats as well as wild ruminants. The phylogenetic study of A. ovis in small ruminants has not studied yet in Iraq. In this study, the presence of A. ovis was investigated in a total of 80 (40 sheep and 40 goats) obtained from 16 randomly selected small ruminants flocks in AL-Qadisiyah in Iraq. All blood samples tested microscopically, firstly by Diff-quick stained blood smear for the detection of intraerythrocytic pathogens. Total DNA was extracted from a sample and submitted to PCR based on fragment amplified of 16S rRNA gene followed nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Six out of 80 samples, (10%) from sheep and (5%) from goats gave positive results. The results of nucleotides sequencing and multiple alignments revealed related Iraqi isolates had a high identity (99.70% - 97.21%) with isolates of other countries, the phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that Iraqi isolates of A. ovis fell one clade near to Russian and Sweden strains and shared 99.7 %-98.36 % with them. In conclusions: this work indicates to detect A. ovis at a low rate in sheep and goat in Iraq and it had a high genetic similarity to world strains.

Effect of dietary supplementation (propolis and/or digestarom) on some blood indexes in broiler chicks under chronic heat stress

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 143-150

This study was conducted to determine the adverse effects of high temperature on some blood parameter of broiler chickens reared under high environmental temperature and evaluating the adding of (propolis and/or digestarom) on diet, three hundred, one-day-old broiler chicks (Rose 308) were distributed equally in to two separated room, thermoneutral (TN) groups and heat stressed (HS) group ( 33 ± 2°C)all over the experiment (42)day. These groups subdivided into five treated groups (30) chick each. They offered a basal diet supplemented with either propolis (2g/kg of diet), or digestarom (150mg/kg), or a mixture of(propolis 2g/kg +digestarom 150mg/kg) or without any diet supplementation with a vaccine or without any diet supplementation without the vaccine. Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Total Protein and albumin levels were estimated using commercial kits. The result revealed that dietary supplementation with propolis and /or digestarom caused significantly (P≤0.05) increases in blood plasma levels of total protein, globulin, levels of albumin, and significantly reduce (P≤0.05)ALT and AST with or without heat stress as compared to their control groups, while there was a significant reduction in levels of total protein, albumin, globulin (P≤0.05), and significant increase(P≤0.05 in level of AST and ALT. It's concluded that providing broiler’s diets with propolis alone or in combination with digestarom are effective in reducing the adverse effects of heat stress in broilers especially the mixture of propolis with digestarom, which gave the best result.

Detection of methicillin resistance of Staphylococcus aureus gene isolates from contaminated cow’s milk

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 151-156

One hundred samples of raw cow milk was collected from different market centers in Basrah city during a period from 16 June to 21 August 2017 and analyzed for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. The biochemical test revealed that 26 isolates on mannitol salt agar were (S. epidermidis), and 32 isolates were (S. aureus) and give a positive result to coagulase, catalase urease, and citrate utilization tests, whereas negative results to indole test. The high rate of S. aureus was observed in Abu Skair 55% followed by Al-Dair 40%, Al-Zubair 35%, Al Karma 25%, and Al-Hartha 5%. The presence of the mecA gene by using pairs of primers revealed that 6.25% of S. aureus strain contain that gene. By using the disc diffusion method, all tested isolates revealed high sensitivity toward chloramphenicol and erythromycin, intermediate sensitivity to tetracycline and novobiocin, and 100% resistance toward methicillin and amoxicillin.

Estimation of lipopolysaccharide concentration in the content of ruminal fluid and feces of dairy cows that suffering from subacute ruminal acidosis

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 157-161

Subacute ruminal acidosis'(SARA) is a common health and productions problem in dairy cattle and described as repeated incidences of drop pH. of the rumen. The aim of the study was to estimate the lipopolysaccharide concentration in the content of ruminal fluid and feces of dairy cows as a diagnostic tool for subacute ruminal acidosis. Four hundred and twenty- seven cows examined in this study in Al-Qadisiyah Province, from these cows, Ninety lactating cows, were have affected with subacute ruminal acidosis. Moreover, fifty healthy lactating cows were considered as a control. Both diseased and control cows were exposed to additional tests of ruminal fluid and fecal samples. The difference observed in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentration in the ruminal fluid and fecal samples 97.772 and 108.823 Eu/ml respectively, of SARA group which were significantly (P≤0.05) higher than the control group. The ruminal and fecal LPS can be used as diagnostic tools to identify the SARA.

Deletion of GCN2 affects whole body and tissue response to asparaginase

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 162-166

Asparaginase (ASNase) treatment results in the synthesis of some factors such as activating-transcription-factor-4 (ATF4). The eIF2-ATF4 pathway is essential for cell survival during amino acid starvation conditions. This requires the eukaryotic-initiation-factor-2 (eIF2) kinase called general control nonderepressible 2 kinase (GCN2). Our objective and hypothesis are addressed in our aim to describe the liver response to ASNase in mice deleted for Gcn2 and Atf4 and either treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or asparaginase (ASNase) for 8 days. We found that deletion of Gcn2 and/ or Atf4 affect body weight and fat and lean content. The results showed that Atf4-/- mice had significantly less fat mass than WT and Gcn2-/- mice even before the startup of the study. Also, WT mice experienced minimal change in body weight and body composition, but Atf4-/- and Gcn2-/- mice both lost substantial amounts of body weight and body fat without altering lean mass. Moreover, Gcn2-/- mice showed high significant increment in liver and pancreas weight when treated with ASNase compared to the other groups. Lastly, spleen weight was significantly lower in all treated groups, except Atf4 null mice, compared to their own control groups. In conclusion, this research provides insight into the importance of the genetic background of patients in choosing ASNase as a treatment.

Some techniques for sex election in Wistar rats

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 167-172

The present study carried out on (36) mature female Wister rats about (65-70) days old divided into (6) groups included (6) female which not given any treatment as control group, other (30) female treated with progesterone (20 mg/kg, s.c) daily for 7 days , after 24hrs. injected with PMSG (150 IU/kg, i.p) and after 48hrs. injected LH (75 IU/kg, i.p) and divided for (5) groups within 14-15hrs. equally, (T1) put with mature male rat (1:2) and isolated after 48hrs. for natural mating, (T2) given alkaline solution in vagina for two days during first and second day from natural mating with mature male rat and removed after 48hrs., (T3) treated with acidic solution in vagina for two days during first and second day from natural mating with mature male rat and separated after 48hrs., (T4) inseminated artificially with upper layer of solution prepared from tail of epididymis and put with castrated male rat for 48hrs. after injected with oxytocin (10 m IU/g, i.p), (T5)inseminated artificially with a lower layer of a solution prepared from a tail of epididymis and put with a castrated male for 48hrs. after injection of oxytocin (10 m IU/g, i.p). The results revealedT4& T2 recorded high ratio of newly born males (71.429%&63.415%), while (C, T1, T3& T5) were (28.571, 30.952, 23.810 and 25%) respectively. While the high ratio of newly born females rate recorded in (T3&T5) were (76.190% and75%), and in (C, T1, T2,&T4) recorded (71.429, 69.048, 36.585 and 28.571%) respectively. The pregnancy rate was 100% in all hormonally treated groups compared with the control group and groups inseminated artificially which recorded 50%. Addition to that, the results showed highly significant variance (P≤0.01) in newly born numbers with a mathematic decrease in body weights of hormonally treated groups.