Print ISSN: 1818-5746

Online ISSN: 2313-4429

Keywords : Sheep


Comparative study of serum protein status of local breeds sheep and goats in Basra province

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 2016, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 16-19

A total of twenty eight local breed sheep and goats (14 of each) of both sexes were used in this study to evaluate the blood protein status. Animals were divided into four equal groups: involving G1 (7 ewes), G2 (7 rams), G3 (7 does), and G4 (7 bucks). Blood biochemical analysis included estimation of total protein, albumin and globulins were done. Results displayed that the levels of total proteins were (6.15 ± 0.32 g/dL), (6.28 ± 0.37 g/dL), (6.62 ± 0.31 g/dL) and (6.52 ± 0.12 g/dL) in G1, G2, G3 and G4 respectively. Levels of albumin were (3.84 ± 0.37 g/dL), (4.11 ± 0.36 g/dL), (3.52 ± 0.22 g/dL) and (4.30 ± 0.30 g/dL) in groups (1, 2, 3 and 4) respectively. Levels of globulins were (2.31± 0.47g/dL), (2.97 ± 0.47g/dL), (3.10± 0.46g/dL) and (2.22 ± 0.34g/dL) in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The results of blood proteins showed no significant differences between all groups of the study in regard to the sex. .

Clinical and hematological study of experimentally induced secondary copper deficiency in sheep

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 2016, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 45-50

The study was conducted on ten male Awassi sheep to evaluate the clinical and hematological changes in addition to measure serum copper level of sheep suffering from secondary copper deficiency during 4 months period. Animals were divided randomly into two equal groups; One group was drenched with a mixture of ammonium molybdate 100 mg with 1g of sodium sulfate in 100 ml of water daily for induction of secondary copper deficiency. The second group left without treatment as control group. The serum copper level, and complete blood picture (Red blood cells, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, total white blood cells, granulocytes %, lymphocyte %, and monocytes %), were estimated on day zero and repeated every two weeks. Results revealed appearance of clinical signs of secondary copper deficiency in deficient (treated) group; including emaciation of all 5 animals, loss of wool and easily to detached, bleaching around eye in one animal, change in wool color, and increased in respiratory and pulse rate compared with control group. The clinical examination of both groups revealed no significant differences in temperature, while there was a significant (P ≤ 0.05) difference in pulse rate, and respiratory rate between treated (37.6 ± 3.07) and control (27.4 ± 1.53) group. Copper level decreased gradually to reach (0.64 ± 0.06 ppm) which regard subnormal level with statistical significant decrease (after 2 months of treatment) in treated compared with control group. Blood parameters included (RBC, Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH and MCHC) were recorded non significant differences along the experiment period in treated compared with control group. Total WBC in treated group were recorded variation in the values with presence of significant gradual decrease in the treated compared with control group with non-significant differences in granulocyte %, monocyte % and lymphocyte %. .

Measuring of serum pepsinogens level in abomasal lesions of sheep

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 2016, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 96-100

The study aimed to investigate serum pepsinogens values with and without abomasl lesions of sheep. Eighty five blood and abomasal samples containing abomasal lesions were collected during slaughtering of sheep in slaughterhouse of Al-Qasim city-Iraq. The abomasal mucosa was examined, and the type, number, and location of lesions were recorded. Serum was taken for pepsinogen assay by ELISA technique. Results revealed that the highest percentage of lesions in abomasum were nodules (48.23%), ulcers (23.52%), parasites (17.64%) and hemorrhage (10.58%). A significant difference (P≤0.05) was recorded between nodules and other abomasum lesions. Serum pepsinogens values in abomasal lesions was found higher (3.8) than those without abomasal lesions (3.13), and showed a significant difference in samples which had different lesions (3.8±0.13) than free lesions samples (3.13±0.1). No significant difference was showed between all samples containing ulcer, nodules and parasites (3.65± 0.28) (3.88±0.24) (3.65±0.95) respectively although the nodules was recorded higher serum pepsinogens comparative with other lesions..

Sheep strawberry foot rot in AL-Diwania province-Iraq

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 2015, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 96-100

The study was conducted to confirm the registration of strawberry foot rot in sheep in AL-Diwania Province in Iraq. A flock composed of fifty sheep of various ages was observed lesions like warts in five lambs; three samples were collected from each lesion. Samples of crusts and scabs were collected into sterile tubes. Swaps were taken deeply from lesions for direct smear and bacteria culture. 1 cm3 lesion tissue samples had been taken and fixed in 10% formalin for histopatholological examination. Results were revealed that the five animals exhibited clinical signs of presence of obvious warts like lesions in distal limb with grey or brown color covered with grey crusts between coronet and knee joint with 1- 4 cm in diameter and raised about 0.5 from surface of skin, the lesion is very painful when touched. Some lesions are showed bleeding this gave the appearance looks like a strawberry fruit. All the smears from the animal species demonstrated Gram positive, filamentous branching arrangement enclosing 2-4 rows of coccoid cells (like tree) indicating the characteristic microscopic morphology of Dermatophilus congolensis. A granular growth at the bottom like cotton with clear supernatant liquid colonies was observed on liquid media. The histopathological study revealed that there were hyperkeratosis, Para keratosis, thickening in the stratum spinosum layer of epidermis, as well as, deposition of huge melanin pigment in the stratum spinosum cells and acanthosis nigricans, while the histopathological changes in the dermis layer showed edema, deposition of granulation tissue and presence of vesicles that may contain coccoidal cells, also there were infiltration of inflammatory cells in the dermis and in between the sebaceous glands of skin. .

Direct detection of Shiga toxin producing by Escherichia coli by real-time PCR

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 2015, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 78-82

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are defined as strains of E. coli that produce Shiga toxins (stx), which known as important causes of diarrhea in sheep and cattle. This study was conducted to determine of Shiga toxin 1 producing E. coli isolates from diarrheal samples of sheep and cattle. Samples were collected from different fields in Diwanyia city. A total of 50 diarrhea samples (25 of sheep and 25 of cattle) were subjected to bacterial DNA extraction by using (AccuPrep® Stool DNA Extraction Kit). The extracted DNA subjected to Real-Time PCR technique for detection of Shiga toxin 1 (stx1) gene. Results display that sheep are more prevalence to shedding the Shiga toxin 1 producing E. coli in (5/25) (20%), while in cattle (2/25) (8%) positive samples. In conclusion the using of Real-Time technique was shown high specific and rapid method in direct detection of (stx1) gene and most the sheep and cattle which infected by diarrhea carried the Shiga toxin 1 producing E. coli. .

Skin histological study in local breed sheep) Ovis ovis)

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 2015, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 14-19

The research was including histological study of the skin of local breed sheep (Awassi). The study carried out by using ten adult healthy skin rams specimens were taken during Autumn season from (12) different anatomical regions involving (ventral and dorsal surfaces of ear, neck, middle of back, scrotum, anterior and posterior ends of tail, medial and lateral surfaces of thoracic and pelvic limbs and muzzle).The histological results revealed that the epidermis was thin in most anatomical regions and composed of four secondary layers arranged from the inner to the outer larger as: stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum and stratum corneum. Results were found, presence of thick epidermis in muzzle and posterior end of the tail and it was characterized by presence of stratum lucidum beside the mentioned four layers. The mean thickness of the epidermis reaches 250.30 um in the muzzle region while the epidermis of the ventral surface of the ear was the least and reaches 45.25 um. In general, we observed that was a direct relation between the whole thickness of the epidermis and the thickness of the stratum corneum in all of the studied skin regions, the results revealed that the dermis of Awassi sheep composed of two essential layers: The superficial called papillary layer, and deep reticular layer. The histometric results refers to that the highest mean thickness (2520.70) um of the dermis was observed in the posterior region of tail, and least thickness(570.20) um in the skin of the ventral surface of ear. Two types of wool follicles in the dermis also noticed; the primary wool follicles, and the secondary wool follicles..

Mycotic mastitis in sheep

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 2014, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 1-4

The study was aimed to investigate the mycotic mastitis in sheep during the period from October 2011 to May 2012 in different areas of Al-Diwaniya province. 253 ewes were examined, and from which 500 milk samples were collected (495 samples from apparently healthy ewes that examined by California Mastitis Test (CMT ) in addition to five samples from sheep infected with clinical mastitis) for isolation and identification of yeasts and molds adopted the method of culturing on Saboaurad Dextrose and Corn meal agar in addition to Chrome agar and biochemical tests as well as specific yeast kits (Integral system yeast plus) for diagnosing the mycotic agents. Results were indicate that the incidence of mastitis in ewes was 17.8%, while the percentage of mycotic mastitis was 9.4%, (0.4% and 9% of clinical and subclinical forms respectively). Yeasts were isolated and identified grossly by colony shape, size, and color, and by biochemical testing which represents 9.61% of the fungal causes, and the yeasts isolates were Candida famata and Rhodotorula rubra from the clinical cases of mastitis only. Molds 90.38% also were isolated, as a high isolates of Asperigllus niger 28.84%, Asperigllus flavus 23%, Asperigllus fumigauts 17.30%, Pencillium spp 13.33%, Asperigllus terrus 5.76%, and the least percentage of isolation 3.84% was of the fusarium spp. 3.84 % .

Comparison of the anesthetic effect of paracetamol, tramadol, ketamine, xylazine, combination in three anesthetic protocols by using two different administration routes in sheep

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 2014, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 137-145

The present study was aimed to compare the efficacy of using three anesthetics protocols of sheep anesthesia by combination of Ketamine (K), Paracetamol (P), Tramadol (T), and Xylazine (X), giving by IV or IM routes. Fifteen healthy adult local breed sheep of both sexes weighing (27.4±2.46) kg and aged (12-14 months) were used and divided into three equal groups. Animals were accommodated in the same environmental conditions. G1 was giving K4 T2 P10 X0.05 by IV route, G2 giving K10 T2 P10 X1 mg/kg by IM route and G3 giving K20 T4 P10 X2.5 mg/kg by IM route. The HR, RR, RT, muscle relaxation, limb, and flank analgesia, and rumen movement were taken before administration of anesthesia and consider as the control reading, then were taken at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45 and 60 minutes or till the end of anesthesia. In G1 the induction time, the surgical anesthesia, and the total recovery time were become 50.6 s, 23 m, and 9.4 m respectively. The HR, RR, and RT were increased, the muscle relaxation, and analgesia were moderate. In G2 the induction time, the surgical anesthesia, and the total recovery time were 5, 36, and 5.6 m, respectively. The HR and RR were decreased, and the RT was increased. The muscle relaxation was deep, analgesia was moderate for 10 minutes. In G3 the induction time, the surgical anesthesia, and the total recovery time were 3.6, 73.4, and 7 m respectively. The HR started stable, then after 15 minutes decreased sharply, The RR was irregular, with apnea, the RT was increased, the muscle relaxation was deep for 35 minutes, and the analgesia was deep for 45 minutes.
In conclusion; The (K), (P), (T), and (X) combination as anesthetic protocol is seen suitable for sheep anesthesia. The surgical anesthesia, and the depth of analgesia are increased with the increase of ketamine and xylazine doses, and the addition of tramadol, and paracetamol, enhance the quality of anesthesia and make the induction and recovery are good. The protocol of G2 is seen the best between the three protocols used in this experiment. The protocol of G3 is seen superior in analgesia and duration of surgical anesthesia but with respiratory depression
.

The relationship between Salmonella infection and liver fluke infestation in slaughter sheep

N. K. Al-Nakeeb; F. G. Habasha

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 2013, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 1-6

The study aimed to detect the relationship between Salmonella infection and liver fluke infestation in slaughter sheep and the association of them with sex and age.Two hundred forty Awassi sheep were divided into two groups, first group(120)healthy animals free from liver fluke (control group), while the second group(120) animals infected with liver fluke(infected group ). Different samples were collected from all animals includes, liver, bile , fecal samples and liver fluke were conducted to bacteriological and serological examination for detection of Salmonella and parasitological examination for detection of Fasciola spp. Results revealed that the percentage of Salmonella isolated from control group were (15%) while in the infected group were (25.83%). According to samples ,liver ,fecal samples and liver fluke showed a higher percent of Salmonella infection in the infected group in comparison with control group with a significant difference at (p 0.05).A high percent of isolation of Salmonella from male (23.07%) than the percentage in female (8.82%).Moreover results indicated high percentage isolate of Salmonella in animals aged 3-4 years.

Study of Pathological Changes of Sheep liver associated with Parasitic infestation

H.Kh.Ismail

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 2013, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 53-62

Histopathological changes of (50) liver samples of sheep infected with hydatid cyst and liver flucks. Selected from butcher shops in Mosul province, have been investigated. In regard to hydatid cyst infected samples, Lesions showed variation between atrophy and necrosis of hepatocytes accompanied with lymphocytes infiltration cutting that cyst. Other samples showed fatty change of hepatocytes concomitant with congestion of central veins few sections revealed liquifactive necrosis infiltrated with inflammatory cells while others showed sever fibrosis of hepatic tissue. In most liver sections infected with liver flucks lesions characterized by cholangitis accompanied with biliary hyperplasia. Some samples showed fatty, necrosis of hepatocytes and central vein congestion, few samples revealed focal lymphocytes infiltration concomitant with prevalent visceral emboli sever fibrosis with hepatic hemorrhage was seen in two samples only. In conclusion, this study clarify the most pathogenic lesions of sheep liver infected with hydatid cyst and liver flucks in Mosul area.

The study of prevalence Foot and Mouth disease in Al-Muthana province

M.M. Mohammed

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 2013, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 43-52

The results of a study showed the incidence of FMD in AL- Muthanna province in 2009 the highest rate in Buffalo and is lower than in cows and less proportion in sheep as fallow (0.79)% (0.64)% (0.33)% These percentages vary significantly below the level of probability(P<0.05).The results showed no effect of sex on the incidence. The results of the study there is a difference in the incidence among young animals and old animals as follows in the sheep were incidence in young animals top of old animals in 2009 and 2010, as follows young (0.24)% (0.12)% old (0.09)% (0.06) %, but for the buffalo and cows incidence higher in old animals and less in young animals in 2009 and 2010, respectively old buffalo (0.24)% (0)%young buffalo (0.55)% (0.16)%, oldcows (0.21)% (0.05 %) young cows (0.43)% (0.27)%. The results showed significant difference by infection by region for 2009 was the highest rate in the village of Sayed Hadi is (7.41%) and the lowest rate in the orchards East (0.50%), either in 2010 the highest rate in the area by the Mahdi (2.64)% and less rate in the eastern district of orchards (0.12)%. Recorded total incidence for 2009 are (0.51)% this percentage significantly with the percentage recorded in 2010 are (0.21)%. The results of the comparison there is no significant difference under probability (P <0.05) between the incidence in sheep in 2009 (0.33%) and 2010 (0.18%)) and Buffalo (for the year 2009 (0.79%) and 2010 (0.16)%) and cows (for the year 2009 (0.64%) and 2010 (0.27%)), and the proportion of infection male sheep in 2009 (0.15%) and 2010 (0.03%), the proportion of infection male buffalo in 2009 (0.16%) and in 2010 (0 %)) and the proportion of infection male cows in 2009 (0.16%) and in 2010 (0.05%)), between the percentage of infection female sheep in 2009 (18)% and for the year 2010 (0.15)%) and infection female buffalo in 2009 (0.63 %) and 2010 (0.16)%) and incidence female cows in 2009 (0.48)% and for the year 2010 (21%).

Effect of enterocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis on bacteria that cause diarrhea in children and young sheep

H. S. Awayid; Kh.M.Khamas

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 2013, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 32-44

A total of 300 samples (100 samples from feases healthy adult persons, adult persons suffer from diarrhea and100 feases healthy child and from feases children suffer from diarrhea and 100 samples from feases young sheep suffer from diarrhea ) , taken from various hospitals in the Baghdad city during the period from January to April 2012. All isolates were subjected to the cultural, microscopical, biochemical examinations by Vitek 2 for identification up to the species. The results showed that 40 isolates belonged to Enterococcus faecalis of which, 25 isolates from diarrhea cause and 15 isolates from normal flora , 31 isolates of which 18 isolates belonged to E.coli and 5 isolates belonged to E.coliO157:H7 and 8 isolates belonged to Salmonella spp. All isolates were subjected to cultural ,microscopical, biochemical examinations and used( API 20 –E) strip. and sensitivity of 31 isolates was tested against (11-9) Antibiotics. Results revealed that isolates showed multi resistance to antibiotics, All isolates of E.coli and E.coliO157:H7 ,Salmonella spp.resistant to some antibiotics for negative Bacteria and belonging to the group Enterobacteriaceae. And Detection of the ability of E. faecalis local isolates to produce enterocin by testing the inhibitory activity agar and broth in two media MRS,BHI and two method against bacteria cause diarrhea. And The results showed a variety of the local isolates in their inhibitory effect against bacteria cause diarrhea in children and young sheep by inhibitor zone between (12-20) mm and was MRS liquid and solid the best media from the brain heart infusion .

Isolation and characterization of streptococcus bovis from rumencontent of awassi sheep in iraq

A. J. A. Al emery; A. A. Yousif; H. A. Al-Hilaly

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 2013, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 44-51

This is the first study in Iraq aimed to isolate and characterize Streptococcus bovis from rumen of Awassi sheep .Ten sheep with different ages fed on grain base diet for three days were used to collect 20 ruminal fluid samples twice at fourth and fifth days by rumenocentesis method , samples cultured on selective media (Modified membrane-bovis agar(M-BA) ,broth of basal medium and modified blood brain heart infusion) ,the isolates were identified according to their morphological, physiological ,biochemical tests and serological by Lancefield group.Cultural characteristic on the selective medium M-BA showed two types of streptococci :first type (23) comprised the majority of isolates ,this type characterized by high acid producing streptococci formed mucoid ,creamy ,orange –centered colonies and second type (4) characterize by low acid producing formed small white colonies .Morphologically the isolates were identified as gram positive ,the cells were oval or spherical , singles, pairs & short chains of 4 to 8 cells. The organisms were found to full under the Lancefield group D.All isolated bacteria grew on broth of basal medium post incubation at 45C˚ ,but not grew at 10C˚ and 50C˚. Adding of 2% NaCl permit the growth, while in 6.5% NaCl didn’t grow. And did not grew on adding 0.04 % Potassium tellurite .All isolates produced lactic acid but ammonia production from arginine was negative, no hemolysis on blood agar . All isolates ferment starch, lactose, fructose, glucose, raffinose and cellobiose.The results of culturing and Physiological and biochemical tests showed that 27 isolates has the characterictices of Streptococcus bovis in 3 types (S1,S2 &S3) ,first type of colony divided into two strain (S115)(S28)according to difference In arabinose. And (S3) called on the second type white pigmented isolates which did not ferment inulin

Study of some minerals deficiency in grazing sheep in Thi-Qar province.

I. A. Mohammed; J. A. Gadi; Amery; M.A.Y. Al; I. A. Mohammed

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 2013, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 106-112

This study was carried out on 250 locally sheep collected from four sides of Thi-Qar Governorate. The clinical, hematological, trace elements changes in naturally occurring minerals deficiency in sheep were described. Anemia & Pale mucous membranes, Alopecia &steely wool, Diarrhea, parakeratosis, pica and abortion constituted the main signs and symptoms. The respiratory and heart rates were significantly higher (p<0.05) in mineral deficient sheep than in normal control sheep in one side of province. Values of total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume were significantly lower (p<0.05) in mineral deficient sheep than in normal control sheep. Significant differences were not found in total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count values in sick and normal control sheep. Copper, Zinc and Iron values in the serum were significantly lower (p<0.05) in mineral deficient than in normal control sheep. The erythrocytes morphology appeared a abnormal shapes and size, this refer to Macrocytic hypochromic anemia and Normocytic hypochromic anemia, It was concluded that a significant changes were noticed between diseased and control sheep in clinical hematological values and trace elements and abnormal erythrocytes morphology, deficiency of a single element seldom occurs under field condition in Thi-Qar Governorate.

Clinical and Bacteriological Study of Subcutaneous abscesses caused by gram positive bacteria in cow and sheep in Al-Qadissiyia province

Y. I. Kh. AL-Tuffyli; M. I. Shekhan

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 2012, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 80-85

In spite of the fact that subcutaneous abscesses is occur in sporadical cases and cause low morbidity, A total of 79 (56 and 23) abscesses of cattle and sheep respectively were examined during 12 month from November 2010 to October 2011 for determined an anatomical distribution of subcutaneous abscesses with identification of clinical features and isolation of causative agents that cause these abscesses in cow and sheep in Al-Qadissiyia province. The head was most commonly affected, followed by (glutcal &neck) and chest regions at percentages 80.36%,10.71% and 8.92% respectively in cattle, and 82.6%, 13.03%, and 4.34% respectively in sheep. Also the results demonstrated that there are four types of subcutaneous abscesses vary in size (from a nutmeg fruit size up to a muskmelon).Fifty four samples out 56 abscesses samples of cattle were demonstrated gram positive bacteria only which presented by Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, S. hycus, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis at percentage (33.9 %), (17.8%), (12.6%), (23.2%) and (7.1%) as well as one sample (1.8%) revealed undifferentiated bacteria, the rest two samples (3.6%) don't showed any bacterial growth during culture. In sheep the 23 samples the result showed that Staphylococcus aureus was predominant bacterial isolates followed by Arcanobacterium pyogenes ,and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis , S. epidermidis, at percentage (30.4%), (26%), (21.7%) and (17.4%) as well as one sample (4.4%) didn’t revealed any growth

Lesions of the adrenal gland of male calves and sheep slaughtered at Mosul Slaughter house

M.M. Al- Hassany; K. H. Al-Mallah

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 2012, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 33-42

The study aimed to detect adrenal gland lesions and determine their ratios at sheep and calves slaughterhouse at age ranged from 1-2 years for 2 months from 1/1/ – 1/3/2011 , and comparing the results between the two species . Adrenal glands were harvistered from 110 sheep to collect 220 samples and from 96 calves to form 192 samples, Gross and histopathological examination were performed . The results demonstrated presence of lesions at 83.64% of samples at sheep and at 82.29% at calves , those lesions represented by presence of congenital deformities including medullary tissue islets within cortex, lobulated adrenal gland, accessory cortical tissue within capsule and accessory cortical tissue within medulla, at ratios 1.82%, 0.9%, 6.36% and 2.73% respectively in sheep and at ratios 4.46%, 1.98%, 4.95% and 4.95% respectively in calves, beside presence of cystic adrenal medulla in sheep at 0.45% of samples . disturbances of cell metabolism also noticed represented by cortical vascular degeneration, chromaffin cell coagulative necrosis at retios 29.55%, 10.45% and 2.27% respectively in sheep and at retios 28.71%, 15.84%, and 4.95% respectively in calves with presence of cloudy swelling in adrenal cortical cell and chromaffin cells at 1.49% and 1.98% respectively at calves adrenal samples cellular adaptation disturbances also observed manifested by diffuse cortical hyperplasia, nodular cortical hyperplasia, diffuse medullary hyperplasia at 6.36%, 4.09%, 2.27% respectively at sheep samples and at 11.88%, 2.97% and 3.47% respectively at calves, circulatory disturbance congestion and edema at 37.73% and thickening of vascular walls at 6.36% of sheep samples, the same lesions appeared in calves at 26.73% and 7.43% respectively from total collected samples, those disturbances also include hemorrhage appeared at 1.98% of calves samples . Two form of inflammation appeared included focal lymphocytic corticodrenalitis at 12.27% in sheep and at 11.88% in calves, otherwise acute corticoadrenalitis demonstrated at 2.97% of calves samples . Repair pross manifested by fibrosis of capsule and thickening of fibrous septa appeared at 28.63% in sheep and at 32.67% in calves . Detection of tumors just included pheochromocyoma at 1.82% and unclassified medullary tumor at 0.9% of ovine samples in contrast a benign myelipoma was recognized at bovine adrenal cortex at 0.49% of samples .It has been concluded that an obvious variation is demonstrated in types and ratios of lesions between sheep and calves with regard to similarities in total affection ratios .
Keywords : Lesions, adrenals, sheep & calves .

Molecular identification of Pasteurella multocida and their serotypes isolated from cattle and sheep in Diwanyia city

J. N. Sadik; A.H. Al-Hamdany; Q. H.Kshash

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 2012, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 66-76

Due to the multi-similarities in phenotypic and biochemical characteristics among genera belong to pasteurellaceae , this study was aimed to isolate and diagnosis of (Pasteurella multocida) that cause respiratory infection in cattle and sheep by using routine methods (culture and biochemical) , then used of molecular method as a diagnostic confirmatory, in addition to conduct the serotyping by using polymerase chain reaction , The study included acollection of (150) samples of infected lungs and smears of nasal , tonsils swabs of cattle and sheep for the period 1-11-2010 and up to 1- 4-2011 of farm animals and various massacres in the city of Diwaniya.Samples were cultured on the blood agar and MacConkey agar and Trypticase Soya agar then diagnosed after pure isolation of colonies using phenotypic and biochemical methods.The results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as confirmatory test isolates after extraction of DNA from isolates and amplification of specific known as KMT-1the presence of asingle band for the amount of amplified DNA with amolecular weight of 460bp.For the purpose serotyping of isolates germ of Pasteurella multocida using PCR, the capsule specific primer (CAPA, CAPB, CAPD, CAPE, CAPF)were used showed that the serotype (B) was the dominat in cattle , with molecular weight (760pb) while type (A) the dominat in sheep with molecular weight (1044pb).The Coclusion , the result of molecular level of identification and serotyping gave ahigh sensitivity (97) % and specificity (82.05) % when compared with its routine diagnostic in cattle and sheep.

Detection of brucellosis in human and animals in Al-Numaniya city and surroiunded from Wasit province

L.H. AL-Bayati

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 2012, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 83-90

This study of brucellosis has been aboard in AL-Numaniya city and other surrounded area from Wasit province . it was prospected from different animals : sheep's , goats and cattles, and including the incidence of disease in these animals using the rose Bengal test .A 850 blood samples were collected from sheep's ,350 from goats and 125 from cottles ,the percentage of infection was 8.5% ,10.6% and 12.8% respectively.In human 80 patients with Malta fever using rose Bengal test were studied ,the highest percentage (33.8%) were found people (23-33)year , the percentage of infection was highest in males from than females and in dairy products consumers followed by the group animal breeder.

Gross and histological comparison of hydatid cyst infection in livers of sheep and cows

adawy; M.A.H. Al Se; M. J.A.AlKaled

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 2012, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 94-101

3 samples of fertile hydatid cysts and 3 other sterile were collected from sheep liver and 3 samples of sterile hydatid cysts from cows liver. Infected liver samples with hydatid cyct were obtained from meat seal shops in AL-Muthanna province in December 2010 ,then measured dimentions of cysts and calculated quantity of hydatid fluid and viability of protoscolices by staining with eosin stain then examining under light microscope of 40x. petechial hemorrhage and paleness around cysts were important gross lesions in sheep in addition to calcification in cow hydatid cysts, on other hand the histological lesions were thickened fibrous layer and sever necrosis with infiltrations of eosinophils and extensive calcification in cows liver. There was significant effect of amount of hydatid cyst, thickness of fibrous layer and thickness of necrotic layer.

Comparative Morphological and Morphometrical study of Lacrimal apparatus of Awasi sheep and Black goat

M.M . Daryuos; N.S. Ahmed

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 2012, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 123-133

This study was included Morphological and Morphometrical measurements of Lacrimal glands ,determined course of the external ducts system &made measurements for all the parts of this system. Twelve of healthy heads of ram awasi sheep and the same numbers of buck black goats was used for this study. Lacrimal glands included paired of dorsal Lacrimal glands , paired of proximal Lacrimal glands of third eyelids absent of distal Lacrimal glands of third eyelid( harderian glands) , while , the external ducts system consist of dorsal & ventral Lacrimal punctae , dorsal & ventral Lacrimal canacliculi ,Lacrimal sacs ,nasaolacrimal ducts and nasal opening for the both sides of the studied animals. Dorsal Lacrimal glands are flatten oval in shaped , undifferentiated in lobulation ,situated at dorsul-lateral surface of the right &left eye in both animals, while the proximal glands of the third eyelids have pyriform in shaped of awasi sheep , oval elongated in black goat situated in the beginning of occular surface of the third eyelids situated like small aggregation at the both sides of the cartilage of the third eyelids .The width of both glands of awasi sheep was greater with that of black goat in the both sides The external duct system beginning from dorsal & ventral Lacrimal punctae that located near medial canthus of the eye ,these punctae drain by paired of canacliculi that was equal in length in the same animals ,the canacliculi separated by small bony material originated from internal surface of Lacrimal bone specially in black goat. These canacliculi of both animals daring into Lacrimal sacs that resemble the funnel in awasi sheep. The Lacrimal sacs in both animals lead to nasolacrimal ducts ,there was significant increase in the total length of the external duct system ,the external duct system in both sides of awasi sheep was longer than that of black goat .Finally the nasolacrimal ducts of both animals end at nasal opening that was very obvious specially in awasi sheep & the right nasal opening in awasi sheep was bigger in diameter than the same opening in black goat.

Epidemiological and identification study of mange mites infestation in sheep in Al-Diwaniyah province

M. A. A. Al-Shebani; K.A. Dawood; G.A. Jassem

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 2012, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 20-27

This study was conducted to investigate the percentages of infestation of mange Mites in sheep in different regions of Al-Diwaniyah province and the effects of age, sex of animals on the prevalence of the disease were studied also.The results of the microscopical examination of the skin scraping were revealed that 186 of the sheep were infested with mites with an overall percentage of infestation 3.65%.In this study four genera of Mange Mites were recorded that parasitized sheep: Sarcoptes scabiei , Psoroptes ovis , Chorioptes spp. , Chirodiscoides caviae (fur mite) with rates 31.18%, 52.15%, 8.06%, 2.15% respectively where the genera of Chorioptes spp. and Chirodiscoides caviae recorded for the first time in Iraq, in addition to the presence a mixed infestation such as Sarcoptes with Psoroptes 5.91% and Psoroptes with Chorioptes 0.53%.The prevalence of the infestation was highest in sheep more than two years old (3.74%) and the lowest in sheep with age less than two years old (3.40%). The prevalence of Mange Mites in male sheep was 3.93% versus 3.59% in females. Statistically there were no significant differences (P>0.05) according to the age and sex of animals, but the differences in percentages of infestation were significant ( p< 0.05) according to different regions of study.

Study of gastrointestinal nematodes resistance to some anthelemitics and evaluation the efficacy of condensed tannin extraction on resistant genera in sheep in Babil

H. M. Al-Ramahi

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 2011, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 77-85

The study was carried out in Babel province, where three sheep farms evaluated for albendazole, levamisol and ivermectin resistance in nematodes by in vivo and in vitro techniques as well as to demonstrate the efficacy of commercial tannin-rich solution on the resistant genera.According to low confidence interval limit of 95% fecal egg count reduction FECR ,In farm I, the animal which treated with levamisol and ivermectin considered as suspected resistant, while the animals which treated with albendazole showed resistance to it. In farm II ,the animal which treated with levamisol and albendazole were considered as suspected resistant ,while no FECR% <95 % was recorded in animals which treated with ivermectin ,and in the same manner ,the animals of farm III which treated with levamisol and albendazole showed suspected resistance and resistance respectively, and no resistance to ivermectin was recorded in animals which treated with it. Also, the results revealed that the combination between in vitro (EHA) and in vivo (FECRT) necessary to confirm the assessment of resistance against benzimedazoles. The most common genus identified from pre treatment feces were Haemonchus ,Trichostrongylus and Cooperia ,while Haemonchus was the only identified genus which demonstrated from post treatment fecal culture.The compared of in vitro effect of condensed tannin CT and thiabendazol revealed that both thiabendazole and CT induced significant egg hatching inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. The thiabendazole required a maximum of 0.5mg/ml, whereas, the CT required a maximum concentration of 2 mg/ml, to induce 100% egg hatch inhibition. The adult worm motility assay showed that the thiabendazole kill all worms at the concentration of 0.25 mg/ml, while CT was showed insignificant killing even in maximum concentration.

Isolation and identification of some aerobic bacteria associated with respiratory infections of sheep in Al-Diwaniya Governorate

M. T. Husseein; M.A.Alrodhan

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 2011, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 138-146

This study was included collection of 300 samples divided into 150 nasal swabs 120 infected lungs 30 blood samples from infected sheep suffering from respiratory infections the study showed isolation 223 bacterial isolates which divided into 12 species and 61 samples were negative to bacterial isolation. E.coli has the higher isolation percentage between other percentages 20.78% then Staph aureus at percentage 14.11% then other bacteria as Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumonia, Staph epidermis, Pasterurella haemolytica, Enterobacter, Corynebacterium pyogenes , Pasteurella multocida, Proteus vulgaris, Citrobacter and Pseudomonase aeruginosa. The sensitivity test was done to all isolates toward 10 types of antibiotics where all isolates showed sensitive to norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin

Umbilical hernias among sheep in Dohuk

N .J. Hassan

AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 2008, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 63-68

Umbilical hernias among sheep in Dohuk

N .J. Hassan
Coll.of Vet.Med./Univ.of Dohuk
Keyword: umbilical hernias, sheep.
Abstract
Twenty four cases of sheep with umbilical abdominal hernias were registered which brought to Akra Veterinary Hospital and to the Teaching Clinic in College of Veterinary Medicine, Dohuk University, Iraq within six years duration approximately.This study reveals that there was great influence of sex and age of animal on the percentage of umbilical hernia in which females 17(70.83%) were more affected than males 7(29.17%). Lambs less than 6 months old 19(79.17%) were more influenced than lambs more than 6 months old and adults 5(20.83%). The percentage of the congenital cases 16(66.67%) preceded the acquired causes 8(33.33%) and the majority of these hernias were reducible 21(87.5%) while the remainder were irreducible 3(12.5%).