The current study was aimed to characterize the Brucella abortus in cows at molecular level after isolation and identification morphologically and serology by using the amplification of specific primers of omp2a gene that encodes to proteins of outer membrane of Brucella by using a technique of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism – Polymerase Chain Reaction (RFLP- PCR) . A Total of 105 samples were collected from cow blood that clinically suspected with brucellosis for the period of November /2011 to May / 2012 from animal shelters in different areas of AL-Diwaniya city . Blood sera were prepared to conduct the Laboratory tests which included the serological tests (Rose Bengal (RBT) and Tube Agglutination (TAT) ) ,then the Brucella was isolated on selective media such as Brucella agar media which confirmed molecularly by using classical Polymerase Chain Reaction to amplify the primers of omp2a gene and finlly the technique of RFLP- PCR was used to determine the species and biovars of Brucella after using the restriction endonuclease (PSTI) for Amplification products of omp2a gene . the results of Brucella isolation On Brucella agar was 15/18(83.3%), Results of classical Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) as confirming test for Brucella isolates after extraction of DNA and amplification of primers belong to omp2a gene showed the appearance of single band on agarose gel represented the DNA amplified (amplicon ) with molecular size (1100 bp) , and the percent of Brucella detection by this technique was 13/15(12.3%) .The results of (RFLP-PCR) for differention among species and biovars of Brucella revealed the appearance of two distinct band on agarose gel that had a molecular sizes (200 and 550 bp) which belong to B.melitensis biovars 1,3 and B.abortus biovars 3,5,6,9 , respectively .
The study was carried out in Al najaf province to investigate the antibiotics residues in local and imported by examine samples from liver ,breast muscle ,thigh muscle and gizzard .The results showed that the prevalent antibiotic residues in imported products was 60% vs. 42.5% in local products. The results of TLC test revealed that the most prevalent antibiotic was sulphadiazine (27.5%) followed by oxytetracycline and chloramphenicole ,while the lowest was neomycin in percentage rate 10%. In imported products the highest prevalent antibiotics was oxytetracycline (40%) followed by sulphsdiazine ,neomycine and chloramphenicol in percentage rate 27.5 ,15% and 3%.
Aim of the study to dect the ectoparasite infestation and blood protozoa infection of draught horses during period Septermber 2011 up to 2012 in Alrashdea regions_ Baghdad.The study was recorded the infestation with the following tick species Rhipicephalus sanguineus , Boophilus annulatus and Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum rate of 27.7% .The result of the study reveald infected of draught horses with blood protozoa species B.equi , B.caballi and also mixed infection at rate of 15.5% , 14.4% and 10% respectively .The study which also recorded the infestation of horses with mange mites species Sarcoptes scabiei with the rate 16.6 %.
Estimation of Iron level in the serum of (134 ) samples of blood collected from local and shammi goats was made while grazing on pasture at AL-Yousifiya district , South of Baghdad, to study the effect of breed , gender and physiological state . Iron level was measured by using Atomic Absorption method. Results showed that the mean of iron in the local goats (males & females) was 0.98 µg/ml ,and in shammi goats (males & females) was 0.99 µg/ml. However in males of both breeds was 1 µg/ml ,and in females of both breeds was 0.9 µg/ml. While the mean of iron in pregnant female goats was 0.96 µg/ml , and the mean in non–pregnant female goats was 0.99 µg/ml. The results also showed iron deficiency in the goats grazing on pastures of AL-Yousifiya , especially pregnant females of both breeds . Statistical analysis showed that there was no effect of breed and gender on the level of iron in different groups .
Aim of this research is to study the effect of pomegranate peel watery and alcoholic extracts against Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth with four concentrations (25, 50, 75, and 100) mg /ml by using agar well diffusion method. The results showed an inhibitory effect which increased with the increasing of the concentration and the type of solvent the bacteria was more sensitive to alcoholic extract concentrations compared with the same concentrations of aqueous extracts It was observed that the effect of differing diameters inhibition of concentrations where the largest diameters inhibition when we focus on 100 mg/ml (37± 2 mm) and (35 ±1.34mm) for extractors alcoholic and water, respectively, and less value Descending to (25)mg/ml which was less effecting against the growth of bacteria by (22±1.2) and (19±0.0) of alcoholic and watery extractors, respectively.
In this study forty (40) cases of outdoor aviary chickens from veterinary teaching hospital at University of Mosul , Gross lesions of the intestine revealed 35%cattaral inflammation,and 20% showed Heammorhragic inflammation and presnts of Heamorrhagic spots on the intestine, And 30% noted congestion and Enlargement of the cecal tonsils 15% show congestion in the intestine ,And the Histopathological Examinations Shows changes Between the parts of the intestine,these lesions was ,In the Dedenum there is Elongation in the intestinal villi with infilitrations of the inflammatory cell,But in the Jejnum the lesions was presnt of Parasitic cysts ,But in the Ilum the Histopathological lesions was the Mucose Degenerations in the Mucose Glands with necrosis of the intestinal villi , But in the cecae the Result showed narrowing in the Lumen of the Intestine and Hyperplsia of the Mucose Glands with infiltrations of inflammatory
The results of a study showed the incidence of FMD in AL- Muthanna province in 2009 the highest rate in Buffalo and is lower than in cows and less proportion in sheep as fallow (0.79)% (0.64)% (0.33)% These percentages vary significantly below the level of probability(P<0.05).The results showed no effect of sex on the incidence. The results of the study there is a difference in the incidence among young animals and old animals as follows in the sheep were incidence in young animals top of old animals in 2009 and 2010, as follows young (0.24)% (0.12)% old (0.09)% (0.06) %, but for the buffalo and cows incidence higher in old animals and less in young animals in 2009 and 2010, respectively old buffalo (0.24)% (0)%young buffalo (0.55)% (0.16)%, oldcows (0.21)% (0.05 %) young cows (0.43)% (0.27)%. The results showed significant difference by infection by region for 2009 was the highest rate in the village of Sayed Hadi is (7.41%) and the lowest rate in the orchards East (0.50%), either in 2010 the highest rate in the area by the Mahdi (2.64)% and less rate in the eastern district of orchards (0.12)%. Recorded total incidence for 2009 are (0.51)% this percentage significantly with the percentage recorded in 2010 are (0.21)%. The results of the comparison there is no significant difference under probability (P <0.05) between the incidence in sheep in 2009 (0.33%) and 2010 (0.18%)) and Buffalo (for the year 2009 (0.79%) and 2010 (0.16)%) and cows (for the year 2009 (0.64%) and 2010 (0.27%)), and the proportion of infection male sheep in 2009 (0.15%) and 2010 (0.03%), the proportion of infection male buffalo in 2009 (0.16%) and in 2010 (0 %)) and the proportion of infection male cows in 2009 (0.16%) and in 2010 (0.05%)), between the percentage of infection female sheep in 2009 (18)% and for the year 2010 (0.15)%) and infection female buffalo in 2009 (0.63 %) and 2010 (0.16)%) and incidence female cows in 2009 (0.48)% and for the year 2010 (21%).
Histopathological changes of (50) liver samples of sheep infected with hydatid cyst and liver flucks. Selected from butcher shops in Mosul province, have been investigated. In regard to hydatid cyst infected samples, Lesions showed variation between atrophy and necrosis of hepatocytes accompanied with lymphocytes infiltration cutting that cyst. Other samples showed fatty change of hepatocytes concomitant with congestion of central veins few sections revealed liquifactive necrosis infiltrated with inflammatory cells while others showed sever fibrosis of hepatic tissue. In most liver sections infected with liver flucks lesions characterized by cholangitis accompanied with biliary hyperplasia. Some samples showed fatty, necrosis of hepatocytes and central vein congestion, few samples revealed focal lymphocytes infiltration concomitant with prevalent visceral emboli sever fibrosis with hepatic hemorrhage was seen in two samples only. In conclusion, this study clarify the most pathogenic lesions of sheep liver infected with hydatid cyst and liver flucks in Mosul area.
The present study was aimed to evaluate the activity of the santonica decoction on the the fasting blood glucose level in an normal , induced hyperglycemic & experimented diabetic rabbits . In the 1st. experiment we were used 15 normoglycemic rabbits , divided into 3 groups : one is control ( given distal water 10 ml / kg of body weight ) & others two were given 100 & 200 mg / Kg body weight of santonica decoction orally for 7 days . The result in this experiment was revealed significant decrease ( P < 0.01 ) in fasting blood glucose level , however the reduction was within normal limits .In the 2nd. experiment we used induced 15 hyperglycemic rabbits , divided into 3 groups as occurred in first experiment . They were fasted for 18 hours & then injected intraperitonially with 4 mg/Kg body weight of 50 % glucose solution . The blood glucose level were determined after 1, 2 & 4 hours following glucose loading & oral administration of plant extract . The result was revealed highly significant decrease( P < 0.01 % ) in blood glucose level . The effect was more pronounced in 200 mg of plant extract compared with 100 mg according with time .In third experiment the effect of santonica decoction on the fasting blood glucose levels were studied in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits , using 15 animals were divided into 3 groups as occurred in 1st. & 2nd. experiments of this study . The fasting blood glucose level was determined after 1 , 3 , 6 & 12 hours following oral administration of plant extract . The result was revealed highly significant decrease ( P < 0.01 ) in fasting blood glucose level of two groups with 100 mg & 200 mg / Kg body weight according with time . The results of this study suggest that the aqueous extract of the santonica decoction possesses hypoglycemic effect & its hypoglycemic action could be attributed to the presence of glycosidic & saponin components in this plant . The water extract might be producing its hypoglycaemic effect by an extra-pancreatic action e.g. possibly by stimulating glucose utilisation in peripheral tissues. Although, it remains possible that the water extract may decrease the secretion of the counter-regulatory hormones (glucagon, cortisol and growth hormones) or reduce absorption of glucose from gut
Anatomically the liver of native rabbit consist of many lobes , large left lobe divided into two parts, lateral and medial. and signal lobes called right , caudate ,quadrate and papillary lobes.
Histologically the liver surrounded the connective tissue capsule extend into the organ by septa and divides of hexagonal lobules, the lobes contain hepatocyte and sinusoid. The hepatic cell arranged to form cellular cords meet at one center is central vein, this cords contain one cell surrounded by space connect with space of other cell , the hepatic cell is polyhydral cell have one nucleus and sometimes two nuclei with acidophilic cytoplasm while the sinusoid are large blood cell capillaries vessels different for the capillaries of body is have open pors , haven't the basement membrane .The sinosoids have two the types of cells first type are endothelial cell and second called kupffer cell which are large macrophage it part of the defence system of body .Notis the hilus on the visceral surface of liver by the hilus input the liver hepatic artery which provid the liver by oxgen , portal vein and hepatic vein lymph vessel and bile duct.
In this study ,eighty(80)fertile eggs taken from commercial breeders were used .These eggs were divided into(2)equal group,group (1) was vaccinated with prepaired oil inactivated vaccine &the second group as control group which given normal saline.Result show that can be used the oil inactivated vaccine to protect the chick embryo,which did not reveal any negative effect on the hatchbility & livability percentage.Heamagglutination Inhibition test(HI)&ELISA test were used,the result revealed increase of inhibitor antibodyes in group (1) with level of P<0.05 in comparative with group(2) at the age of 1,7,14 days after hatching.Early challenge test was used in 14 day after hatch to evaluate this vaccine the result show resistance of group (1) to challenge dose with virulent Newcastle virus & protective percent reach %93.33 compairtive with control group which give %26.66.
The research includes study of histological structure of skin components in upper lip of clinically healthy local black goat with 1-2 years age at one season in mosul region . the results show presence of difference in total thickness of epidermis in both sexes . the highest thickness noticed at vermilion border reach to 330 µm , then followed by the thickness of mucous membrane , while the epidermis of nasolabial plate was the least in thickness in both sexes .The results of the study were showed presence of two types of hair follicles ; simple and tactile in nasolabial plate of both sexes of local black goat , but the tactile hair follicles were the most developed , larger in size and less in number when compared to simple hair follicles. The study reveals presence of different sizes of sebaceous glands which were larger in female than in male . the sweat glands were of apocrine type and have different extentions through the dermis .Both types of glands appeared in nasolabial plate and third type of glands appeared in submucosa of this plate and in mucous membrane which are of serous and mucous secretory units with complete duct system opened within the mouth in both sexes.
The present study aimed to investigate the positive role of two plant belongs to the gramineae family (barley and oats ) to ameliorate some physiological and histological parameters in alloxane – induced diabetic rats. Twenty sexually mature rats were divided into equal groups , the first served as negative control (C) , the second diabetic group treated with water tap(T1) , the third diabetic group & treated with ethanolic extract of barley (20 mg/Kg B.W.)(T2) , the fourth diabetic & treated with ethanolic extract of oats (20 mg/Kg B.W) (T3) .The results reveals a significant increase under (p≤0.05) in the levels of blood glucose , AST , ALT , APH , serum Cholesterol , abnormal sperm count and significant decrease in the RBC count , total protein , total sperm count compared with control group. In the same time the results showed that a significant decease under (p≤0.05) in the levels of blood glucose , AST,ALT ,APH ,WBC count , serum Cholesterol ,ratio of abnormal sperm count and a significant increase in the RBC count , total protein , normal sperm count in the T2 & T3 compared with T3 whereas no significant differences between treatment groups (T2,T3) and control group in the results of previous parameters.The results of histological study showed that there are pathological changes and necrosis in the tissues of liver , kidney , testis and epididymis in a T1 group comared with control group, Whilst treatment groups (T2,T3) were showed clear improvement in the tissues & organs included in local study & correct the damage caused by induced diabetes as a result of treatment with barley and oats.From the above results we concluded that alcoholic extracts of barley & oats have positive role in the improvement of some physiological & histological parameters in the alloxane induced diabetes rats.
The study aimed to detect the relationship between Salmonella infection and liver fluke infestation in slaughter sheep and the association of them with sex and age.Two hundred forty Awassi sheep were divided into two groups, first group(120)healthy animals free from liver fluke (control group), while the second group(120) animals infected with liver fluke(infected group ). Different samples were collected from all animals includes, liver, bile , fecal samples and liver fluke were conducted to bacteriological and serological examination for detection of Salmonella and parasitological examination for detection of Fasciola spp. Results revealed that the percentage of Salmonella isolated from control group were (15%) while in the infected group were (25.83%). According to samples ,liver ,fecal samples and liver fluke showed a higher percent of Salmonella infection in the infected group in comparison with control group with a significant difference at (p 0.05).A high percent of isolation of Salmonella from male (23.07%) than the percentage in female (8.82%).Moreover results indicated high percentage isolate of Salmonella in animals aged 3-4 years.
Back ground: idiosyncratic drug hepatotoxicity is none or time related, unpredictable, occurs infrequently and can be fatal. It was proposed that inflammatory or oxidative stress occurs randomly in patients even after asymptomatic incidence can precipitate drug hepatotoxicity.
Aim: To measure hepatotoxicity of diclofenac in rabbit serum following the incidence of inflammatory stress by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and correlate this to various stress parameters as Malondialdehyed (MDA).
Method: 24 rabbits were divided into four groups (6 each) according to type of treatment.
Group 1: control (received normal saline).
Group 2 received diclofenac sod. (5mg/kg, orally 3times daily for three days).
Group 3: received lipopolysaccharide (150µg/kg, i.v, 24 hours before killing.
Group 4: received diclofenac sod. + Lipopolysaccharide (5mg/kg orally + 150µg/kg, i.v 24 hours before killing).
Then for each animal were measure, liver M D A, liver enzymes.
Conclusion: LPS potentiated the hepatotoxic effect of diclofenac sod. The effect is mediated by oxidative and inflammatory reactions as demonstrated by increase in liver tissue M D A.
The histological pattern of the isthmus segment of the oviduct in laying turkey was conducted on five adult and healthy females. Morphometric measurements were obtained for thickness of mucosa, height and thickness of mucosal folds, epithelial height, and thickness of muscular coat. The result revealed that the mucosa consisted of longitudinal, broad folds carried secondary ones. The epithelial lining was pseudostratified columnar comprised two cell types, ciliated and non-ciliated cells. The glands were tubular coiled branched showing secretory activity, tunica muscularis was well developed and consisted of two layers.
This study was design to estimated of sperms biometry in local Iraqi Awassi rams. Five mature rams of 2.5-4 years old and 37-44 Kg live body weight were used in this study. Semen collection was performed by using artificial vagina. Semen samples were evaluated immediately after collection of total 30 ejaculate. Semen volume and color, mass and individual sperms motility, live and abnormal sperms as well as sperms concentration were estimated. sperms biometry calculated by using phase contrast microscope and occulo-micrometer lens.Semen biometry means which estimated in this study were; sperms head length 9.62± 1.2 micron, sperms head width 5.32± 2.5 micron, acrosome length 6.10 ± 2.4 micron , head base width 2.54 ± 1.8 micron , midpiece length 11.92 ± 3.6 , midpice width 2.21 ± 0.8 micron , tail length 50. 62 ± 2.1 micron
Out of 150 eggs were collected randomly as (local egg 50 and imported egg 100) from different markets of Sulaimani city, during the period from October 2009 to June 2010, Three (3%) of imported eggs were found contaminated with Salmonella. Three different Salmonella serotypes were identified including; Salmonella typhimurium (one strain), Salmonella ohio (one strain) and Salmonella enteritidis (one strain) which represented 1% for each.
The study aim to explain the anatomical description of the digit of fore limb in goat (Capra hircus). Left and right fore limbs of 10 Iraqi healthy male goats aging (6) months, with no history of lameness and without local swelling or joint distension were utilized in this study. The study reveals that the goats have two digits; each digit has three phalanges (pI, p II, p III) and sesamoid bones. The PI longer than the other phalanx while the pII was much shorter than the pI. PIII was uniquely triangular in shape with numerous vascular channels. The proximal sesamoid bones were elongated and each bone have three surfaces while distal sesamoid bones were shuttle in shape and situated palmer to the second interphalangeal joints.
Due to Infectious Bronchitis (IB) disease outbreak in Iraq this study was carried out to evaluate the viability of volvac® IB+ND MLV as mixed vaccine (Newcastle serotype lasota +infectious bronchitis mass ) which is considered the most common vaccine for IB disease in Iraq and also to determine the most benefit route of administration .This study achieved by using 96 chicks and divided into main 3 groups, each group contain 32 birds, tow groups vaccinated with volvac® IB+ND MLV vaccine and the third group is control (-) ,the first tow groups subdivided in to three sub group each subgroup contain 8 chicks vaccinated with different route .First subgroup(A) vaccinated with dropping route , Second subgroup(B) by spray route and Third subgroup(C) by manual drinking. Antibody of humoral immunity was estimated by using ELISA technique that reveled the vaccine (Newcastle serotype lasota + infectious bronchitis mass ) is benefit for Newcastle disease rather than for Infectious bronchitis , the antibody titer is higher for Newcastle disease than for Infectious bronchitis, and the most useful route is spray.
Coccidial infections in broiler cause significant economic losses because of decreased growth and feed utilization. To detect infection, gross evaluation of the intestinal tract and a microscopic evaluation of a wet smear are used as routine diagnostic methods. The aims of this study were to compare qualitative method (fecal floatation) with other methods of diagnosis ( wet smear). 14000 rose broiler breed between 26 and 42 days of age from 2 flocks in Fallujah city were evaluated. 40 fecal specimens were collected and examined by fecal floatation method for each flock. Wet smears, mucosal impressions were obtained from the middle jejunum, ileum, and cecum from each broiler. The result of floatation method give (++)of oocysts in the all sample while the wet smear method give negative result in the same farm and same time. In concluded the floatation fastest and most accurate method for detection of coccidia
This investigation aimed to study effect of adiponectin hormone on serum lipoproteins levels in female rats. For this purpose, thirteen female rats were divided into treated and control groups. Each animal in treated group received a daily intraperitoneal 25microgram does of adiponectin dissolved in 0.2ml normal saline for fifteen respective days. In the same time each animal in control group received a daily intraperitoneal 0.2ml normal saline for fifteen respective days.The animal were fasted for 12 hours after last does administration. Blood samples were collected, and the sera obtained. Analysis showed significant increase in the serum HDL level, and significant decrease in LDL concentration. A P < 0.05was considered significant.
This study was designed to identify some genera and species of bacteria and fungi that infect conjunctiva in cattle, as the studies on this subject are few somewhat, especially those that include isolating fungi that infect the conjunctiva as rare cases and that may be caused by low body immunity after topical corticosteroid and antibacterial therapy to an inflamed eye, This study included examination of (100) eye swabs, from cows from different ages and regions in diwaniya city. This study extended from 1/5/2012 – 27/11/ 2012. The samples were collected from clinically healthy and infected eyes of animals. (7) bacterial species were isolated they included Staphylococcus spp. 26.4% , E. coli 24.8%, Staphylococcus aureus 19% , Moraxella bovis 9.9% , Streptococcus spp. 8.3%, , , Pseudomonas spp. 8.3%, Proteus spp. 3.3%. The isolated bacteria were 121, Gram positive bacteria were 63 (52.1%) while Gram negative bacteria 58 (47.9%). Many types of bacteria isolated from healthy swabs 75 (62%) and 46 (38.1%) from infected swabs. The study also included isolation and identification of some species of fungi associated with the mycotic conjunctivitis in cattle, the observed study Aspergillus niger was the most frequent species isolated and was accounted to 37.5% of all isolates, while other fungi included Aspergillus fumigates 25% , Alternaria spp. 25% and Penicillium spp. 12.5%.
Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis in human and animals, a disease of cosmopolitan character. A total of 65 serum samples of domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Sulaimani region were collected from May till August 2012.The overall seropositivity against T. gondii antibody was 60% based on the Latex agglutination test (LAT). The positive agglutination titers were ranged between 1:2 -1:128, and the highest seropositive rate observed at a titer 1: 128 was 25.64% . The present study demonstrated that anti Toxoplasma antibodies were high in chickens in this study.In histopathological examination of brain samples, tissue cysts were observed in 7 samples 33.33%. About the Giemsa stained impression tissue smears of liver, kidney and spleen of all seropositive chickens tissue cysts also observed at the rate of 38.46%, 20.51% and 12.82% respectively, the results indicate that T. gondii localized in the liver more often than in other tissues of naturally infected chickens.This is the first report of T. gondii infection in domestic chickens in Sulaimani province.
In order to determine the influence of Culture Filtrate Brucella mellitensis Antigens (CFAgs) on B. mellitensis infection in chatosan immunostimulater mice, sixty for white mice, both sex,7-8 weeks age were divided randomly into for groups.1st group(n=16 ) was immunized with 0.4ml of CFSAgs B. mellitensis (concentration of protein( 4.2mg/ml) ,i/p two doses, 2 weeks intervals. 2nd group(n=16) was feed on diet supplement with chitosan ,(1mg/kg B.W) 4 weeks. group. 3ed group(n=1) was inoculated with (0.4ml) I/P with1X109 CFU/ML of viable virulent B. mellitensis and was served as control positive group. 4th group (n=16) was inoculated with 0.5ml sterile normal saline. Cellular and humoral immune response were recorded at 28-30 day post immunization, skin test and passive heam agglutination test respectively, then all animals of immunized and feed chatosan groups were challenge with B. mellitensis as control positive group. The results explained that dead for animals in cotral positive during 15 days post inoculation with virulent viable B. mellitensi with very heavy bacterial isolation, from animal of control positive group post infection The results revealed that immunization with CFSAgs elicited both humoral and cellular immune responses, the level values of both arms of immune response also result reveald that immunization with CFSAgs + chatosan elicited both humoral and cellular immune responses higher than other group , Severe pathological lesions were seen in examined organs of control positive group but these lesions are mild or few in animal immunization with CFSAgs + chatosan. The main lesions in examined organs of these animals are suppurative inflammation ,small grnulomma .. We conclusion that immunization with CFSAgs + chatosan can improve the immune responses in the animals that are suffering from Brucella mellitensis infection
This study was conducted to collect 388 milk samples from cows at different villages and townships in Al-Najaf province to examine about Staphylococcus aureus mastitis .CMT was used for subclinical mastitis screening ,212(54.6%) milk samples were mastitic .The molecular method (PCR assay) was used to detected the presence (glpF) gene in classically diagnosed S.aureus, which appeared that 38(92.6%) S.aureus mastitis as 13(32.5%) clinical and 25(14.5%) subclinical mastitis .There was high significant incidence of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in left posterior udder quarter rather than others quarters.
The aim of this study is investigated the causes of retardation in growth of purebred calves infected by Theileria annulata.Blood samples of infected group (treatment group) were taken once, and blood samples of the control group (clinically healthy) were taken also .Serum separation was done to two groups to determinate some blood factors levels as ferritin ,phosphorus ,glucose ,growth hormone ,total T3 and total T4.It was detected that mean values of serum Ferritin was significantly higher than the values of the control group and healthy animals.No significant effect of the infection on the phosphorus and T3 levels ,While there were significant depression in serum levels of glucose ,growth hormone and T4.
This study was conducted for exam 348 milk samples from (clinically mastitic and other healthy cows) in many areas in AL-Diwanyia province by using CMT and bacteriological testing , which appeared that (64.9%) as percentage of mastitis ( clinically 15.9% , subclinically 84.0% ) Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis 13.2% ( 26.6% clinically , 73.3 % subclinicaly) diagnose by PCR assay by using specific primer (16SrRNA). Streptococcus agalactiae (30 isolates) after classical methods applied for streptococcus agalactiae identification (86 isolates).
This study consists of two experiments conducted to explore a toxicological comparison between tobramycin sulphate and amikacin sulphate, and to explore the role of calcium gluconate in antagonizing or reducing the main toxic side effects of tobramycin and amikacin like nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity and neuromuscular blockade.The first experiment was designed to study and measure the acute toxicity of these drugs by using the Up and Down method, which showed that the value of intravenous LD50 of both drugs increased almost twice as much from 154.8 to 294.8 mg/kg for tobramycin and from 437.1 to 737.1 mg/kg for amikacin after the pretreatment with calcium gluconate.The second experiment was performed on rabbits injected with selected toxic dose considered as LD50 of tobramycin and amikacin given by intravenous IV route for the observation of the neurotoxicity signs and recording their appearance time, until the observation of certain definite neurotoxic signs such as loss of righting reflex. At that time, calcium gluconate was given by slow intravenous infusion (over 5-10 minutes) at a high range of therapeutic dose 45mg/kg and the time of disappearance of neuromuscular blockade signs with the number of life and dead animal were recorded for each treatment.The results of this experiment showed that although tobramycin was more potent in inducing neurotoxic effects according to the dose used but amikacin is seems to be more efficacious in developing neurotoxic signs response according to it is short appearance and disappearance time of toxic signs after amikacin and calcium treatment, in comparison with that of tobramycin and calcium treatment.
A pathological study of braken fern ( Pteridium aquilinium ) toxicity was conducted in rats. Twenty albino rats were randomly divided in to 4 groups . The first three groups were received diet containing 10 %, 20 % and 30 % braken fern powder respectively . The fourth group was served as control. The experimental rats were sacrificed after one month . Gross and histopathological examination reveal lesions in many organs . Gross lesions revealed congestion of all internal organs , while the histopathological lesions were characterized by spongiosis , perivascular cuffing and astrocytosis in the brain . Swollen hepatocytes accompanied by vacuolation and fatty degeneration in the liver . Suppurative pneumonia with infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lungs . In intestine the villi were fused with proliferation of cryptal enterocytes . Interstitial nephritis associated by degenerative changes in the renal tubular epithelial cells . Acute cystitis with edematous lamina propria and neutrophilic infiltration were seen in urinary bladder . These lesions were more sever in the group 3 incomparism with group 1 and 2 . No lesions were observed in the control group .
Sixty female genital organs of black local Iraqi goats were collected from the abattoir during the breeding season, and transported in a normal saline in a cool box within 30 minutes of slaughter to the Theriogenology lab. The oocytes were collected either by aspiration or slicing and graded on the basis of the nature of cumulus cells and homogeneity of cytoplasm. The medium used for maturation and for IVF were TCM-199, TALP and MEM. Caudal epididymal sperms were used for IVF. Results of the present study showed a high level of maturation and fertilization rates observed in TCM-199, followed by TALP and MEM medium. Thus it could be concluded that there is a possibility of getting a successful IVF in Iraqi goats by using epididymal sperms.
The aim of this study to detected contamination with Salmonella spp. In imported chicken meat in the local markets of Al- Diwaniyia city . to protect health of consumer and Determintion the most contaminated origin with salmonella spp. A toatl of 100 chicken meat samples collected from different origin. The bacteria cultured and isolated in enrichment and selective media . Salmonella isolates were subjected to some biochemical tests show positive productive results H2S .TSI . SIM And its give negative for indole , vo-gs Proskauer and ureas , Biochemical identification was carried out using API 20-E test ..the result showed isolation sample (3355)60% on bismuth sulphate agar and the results of isolation on chromogenic agar were 87.8 |%(2933) .according to reading Api20-E system the results of confirmation of isolates 92%(2526) In this study,( 23) Salmonella isolates were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by using 16s rRNA and invA gene these primers were selected specifically for the detection of Salmonella to amplify a 406bp and 558 bp DNA fragments, respectively. Only 7 isolates out of 23 were identified as S. typhimurium the results of this study showed the highest percent of s.typhimurim isolates was ( 50%) ( 3/6) for India origin and the lowest was Turkish origin
This study was done to evaluate exposure to inhalation of formalin as a disinfectant for poultry house on hematological, biochemical parameters and histopathological examination in broiler. The used (24) chicken divided into two groups, every group included (12) chicken. First group (control) and second group exposure to formalin by inhalation for 2 weeks. Blood samples were collected at end of each week for analyzed some hematological such as (PCV, Hb, RBCs, total WBCs counts and differential WBCs count) and biochemical parameters such as (total protein, albumin, globulin and bilirubine) at the end of each week after 1wk scarified of half number of broiler and remove organs such as (lung, heart and liver) for histopathological examination and end of 2wk scarified the reminder number of broiler.In our study the hematological changes revealed significant decreases into PCV, Hb, RBCs and WBCs counts after 1wk and 2wk compared with control group. The total protein, albumin, and globulin showed significant decreases while bilirubine showing significant increasing after 1wk and 2wk of treated group compared with control group. The differential WBCs count showed significant increasing into neutrophils, and monocytes after 1wk while there was significant increasing into eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils after 2wk compared with control group. There was significant decreasing into lymphocytes eosinophils and basophiles after 1wk of treated groups, but after 2wk the monocytes and lymphocytes that showed significant decreasing.The histopathological examination of lung in treated group after 1wk revealed highly changes that represent by congestion of blood vessels, hemorrhages with thickening of blood vessels walls, thickening into alveolar walls, alveoli filled with erythrocytes and fibrin, hemosidrosis, and hyperplasia of alveolar cells into treated group compared with control group, while after 2wk the changes was emphysema (destruction of alveolar walls) only. The heart revealed congestion of blood vessels after 2weeks. The liver revealed more changes that represented by congestion of central veins and necrosis in the hepatocytes, fibrosis and hyperplasia into portal area of the liver tissues compared with control group. Changes into liver after 2wk of treated group showed acute inflammation, congestion of blood vessels, hemorrhage and degeneration of hepatocytes with necrosis into some areas. After 1wk the heart show slightly changes includes congestion of blood vessels and slightly infiltration of inflammatory cells and hemorrhage compared with control group, but after 2wk the heart show more infiltration of inflammatory cells with fibrosis of treated group compared with control group.